If girlfriend walk right into a usual teachers’ workroom and also ask the question, “What’s the purpose of homework?” you will do it likely discover that most teachers have actually a definite opinion.

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But ask castle what research study says around homework, and also you’ll get less critical answers. What does research study really say around homework together a strategy to improve student achievement?

When i was reviewing the research before writing great Instruction the Works, second ed., ns looked in ~ a broad review that the effects of homework on college student achievement. It ended up being clear the the impacts of homework ~ above student accomplishment are not completely clear. A number of factors, together as level of parental involvement and also support, period of the student, homework quality, students’ finding out preferences, and also structure and also monitoring of assignments can influence the affect of homework on achievement (Hong, Milgram, & Rowell, 2004; Minotti, 2005).

One synthesis of research study on the relationship in between homework time and success showed some gains in ~ the middle and high school levels, yet less so at the elementary institution level (Cooper, Robinson, & Patall, 2006). Rather have uncovered that homework can help students strengthen your self-regulation skills such as regulating time, setting goals, self-reflecting on your performance, and also delaying gratification (Ramdass & Zimmerman, 2011).

On the upper and lower reversal side, yes sir some research highlighting an unfavorable aspects the homework, consisting of disruption of family time, stress, conflicts between student and also parent, and minimal access to neighborhood and leisure time (e.g., Coutts, 2004; Warton, 2001).

So those the best approach to take? In Cathy Vatterott’s 2009 book, inventory Homework: ideal Practices the Support varied Needs, she outlines practices she refers to as she “New Paradigm for Homework”:

If you take Vatterott’s encourage practices along with the research-based recommendations discovered in class Instruction the Works, 2nd ed., you can start to view homework differently, as an extension of practice and a possibility to deepen expertise of a topic. Think about these tips:

Always ask, “What discovering will result from this homework assignment?” The goal of her instruction have to be to architecture homework that results in coherent learning.

Assign homework to help students deepen their understanding of content, practice skills in stimulate to end up being faster or much more proficient, or learn new content on a surface level.

Check the students are able to perform required skills and tasks independently prior to asking them to finish homework assignments.

When students return home, is over there a safe and quite ar for them to do their homework? I have actually talked to teachers that tell me they recognize for specific the home environments of their students are chaotic in ~ best. Is it most likely a student will be able to complete homework in together an environment? Is it possible for college student to go to an after school program, maybe at the YMCA or a Boys and also Girls Club. Assigning homework to students once you recognize the likelihood of them gift able to finish the assignment through tiny fault the their own doesn’t seem fair to the learner.

Consider parents and also guardians come be your allies once it pertains to homework. Recognize their constraints, and, when house circumstances present challenges, consider alternative approaches to support students together they finish homework assignments (e.g., before-or after-school programs, additional parent outreach).

Because the study on homework is mixed, teachers must think carefully about what work they assign because that homework, and also what the objective of that homework truly is. Remember that it’s necessary for college student to get feedback on your homework so the they know what they walk correctly, what they walk incorrectly, and what they have to do beside improve.

One final note – students need to not be able to pass, nor must they fail a class based upon homework. I have actually seen some course syllabi describe homework consisted of 30% or more of the last grade. A food grade need to be based almost entirely on exactly how well a student has actually mastered the content. If a student earns all A’s and also B’s ~ above tests and in-class assignments, they do not do it be punished through an in its entirety D since of missing homework. On the upper and lower reversal side, if a student has mostly D’s and also C’s however turns in all homework, lock shouldn’t knife a B in the course. If you feeling you must incorporate homework ~ above the last report, think about a grade for duty or citizenship. One A great in Math and a D in responsibility provides students and also parents a much more clear check out of the student’s true progress.


Howard Pitler is a dynamic facilitator, speaker, and instructional coach with a proven document of success spanning four decades. With comprehensive background in expert development, the works with schools and also districts internationally and also is a constant speaker in ~ national, state, and also district conferences and workshops.

Pitler is at this time Associate Professor at Emporia State university in Kansas. Prior to that, he offered for 19 years as an elementary and middle school primary in an city setting. Throughout his tenure, his elementary school was selected together an Apple distinguished Program and named "One that the height 100 colleges in America" by Redbook Magazine. His middle school to be selected together "One that the optimal 100 Wired institutions in America" by PC Magazine. He additionally served because that 12 years as a an elderly director and also chief routine officer because that McREL International, and he is right now serving top top the board of Colorado stclairdrake.net. That is an Apple identified Educator, to apologize Teacher, National identified Principal, and Smithsonian Laureate.

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