The Object

The thing of the game is to strike your opponent"s King in together a method that that cannot avoid you from killing it (this is called checkmate) while in ~ the same time avoiding him native doing the very same to you. The other method to shed is to operation out that time. Time limits will be defined in much more detail additional down this page.

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The Chessboard

Chess is played on one 8x8 square board with alternating light and dark squares. The square closest to one of two people player"s left is dark, if the square closestly to one of two people player"s best is light. (Just remember, irradiate on best - it rhymes!) The 8 columns are called files, and they space lettered a (at White"s left/Black"s right) to h (at White"s right/Black"s left). The 8 rows are dubbed ranks, and also they are numbered 1 (closest to White) to 8 (closest come Black).

The pieces

Chess is a fight between 2 players - White and also Black. Players take turns moving until the video game is over. White always moves first. If you were White the critical time girlfriend played against a particular opponent, you need to be Black next time. Every player beginning the video game off through a King, a Queen, 2 Rooks, 2 Bishops, 2 Knights, and also 8 Pawns. Each kind of piece has its own distinct style of movement, as you will see in the complying with sections.

The Pawn

White"s 8 Pawns are inserted on location 2, when Black"s 8 Pawns are placed on location 7. The very first time a Pawn moves, it may move ahead 1 or 2 spaces. ~ a Pawn has moved, it can only relocate 1 space at a time. Pawns might not relocate sideways or backwards. As soon as killing one more piece, a Pawn must relocate 1 space diagonally forward. The Pawn is the just piece the does not kill in the same method that it usually moves.

The Knight

White"s Knights start off in ~ b1 and also g1. Black"s Knights start off in ~ b8 and g8. The knight"s movement is a bit tricky, and it is a move discovered only in chess or games acquired from chess. The knight must move either 2 spaces vertically and also 1 room horizontally, or 2 spaces horizontally and also 1 room vertically. The knight"s move deserve to be described as being choose the letter L. A knight in a corner only has actually 2 squares come which it have the right to move, if a knight in the centre has 8 squares come which it can move. The items is likewise the only piece that deserve to "jump" over other pieces. A Knight that starts turn off on a dark square will move to a irradiate square, and vice versa.

The Bishop

White"s Bishops start off at c1 and f1. Black"s Bishops begin off in ~ c8 and also f8. Bishops relocate any variety of spaces diagonally - the is, the horizontal distance must equal the vertical street of a Bishop"s move. A Bishop that starts turn off on light squares, therefore, will always be on irradiate squares. A Bishop in a edge of one uncluttered board has seven squares to which it have the right to move, if a Bishop in the centre has actually 13 squares to which it deserve to move.

The Rook

White"s Rooks begin off at a1 and also h1. Black"s Rooks begin off in ~ a8 and h8. Rooks relocate any variety of spaces horizontally or vertically - that is, either the horizontal distance or the vertical street of a Rook"s relocate must it is in zero. Rooks deserve to be an effective pieces if their path is no blocked by other pieces - on an uncluttered board, a Rook has 14 squares to which it have the right to move.

The Queen


White"s Queen starts turn off at d1. Black"s Queen starts turn off at d8. The Queen has the combined movement abilities of the Rook and also the Bishop. On one uncluttered board, a Queen in a corner has 21 squares come which it deserve to move, while a Queen in the centre has actually 27 squares come which it can move.

The King

White"s King starts turn off at e1. Black"s King starts turn off at e8. The King is the most essential piece in the video game - friend must protect yours at every costs, while at the same time breaking down your opponent"s defences to death his King. The King moves only one square in ~ a time in any kind of of the eight directions that a Queen deserve to move. As soon as your King is attacked, it is stated to it is in in check, and also the inspect must be corrected so the the various other player may not kill your King. If the examine can"t be corrected, it is referred to as checkmate and also the video game is over. There room 3 methods you can correct a check:

move the King. Place another piece in between your King and also the attacker. This can"t be done if your King is struck by 2 pieces at once. Death the attacking piece. This can"t be excellent if your King is attacked by 2 piece at once.

A King in the corner has 3 squares come which it may move, if a King in the centre has actually 8 squares to which it might move. Keep in mind that the King must be protected, especially behind a wall surface of your very own pieces. However, you must also be mindful not to leave yourself open to a smothered mate, a checkmate in which your King can"t move to safety as result of his own pieces blocking the in. As soon as you relocate to assault your opponent"s King, if your foe is a novice, you should say, "check" to educate him that his King is under attack. If friend checkmate your opponent, you should say, "checkmate" to notify him that the game is over.

This is the only correct way to collection up a chessboard. Keep in mind that the White Queen is ~ above a irradiate square and the black Queen is ~ above a dark square. Constantly remember, the dress matches the shoes.

Special Moves

There space three species of distinct moves in chess - castling, pawn promotion, and also en passant.


Castling is a special relocate in which the King move 2 spaces in the direction of the Rook and also the Rook jumps end the King. Castling is the only move in i beg your pardon you may move 2 pieces, and can just be excellent if the following problems apply:

Both the King and the Rook have to be top top their beginning squares, having actually never relocated before, even if the moved earlier to its beginning square. You might not castle through a Rook the you earned via Pawn Promotion. All the spaces between the King and also Rook have to be vacant. The King is no in examine on one of two people of the 3 squares that covers throughout the move. There are 2 ways you might castle - queenside or kingside. when White castles queenside, his King will be on c1 and also his Rook will certainly be top top d1. Once White castles kingside, his King will be top top g1 and his Rook will certainly be on f1. As soon as Black castles queenside, his King will be top top c8 and also his Rook will certainly be on d8. When Black castles kingside, his King will be top top g8 and his Rook will be ~ above f8. Pawn promotion

Since Pawns never relocate sideways or backwards, they come to be useless as soon as they reach the finish of the board. To reward girlfriend for your perseverance, the Pawn might be promoted to a Knight, Bishop, Rook, or Queen. Keep in mind that a Pawn might not end up being a second King, nor have the right to it remain a Pawn. The Queen is most regularly chosen, because it is generally the best piece, so Pawn promotion is frequently referred to as Queening. It is even possible to have actually 2 or more Queens through Pawn Promotion. If a second Queen can"t be found, transforming a Rook upside-down might serve as a Queen, or any other thing of a an ideal size and colour.

En Passant

In the olden work of chess, the preeminence that Pawns might move 2 spaces on their first move didn"t exist. That rule was presented later to rate up the opening. It would seem that this provided players the possibility to sneak their Pawns past foe Pawns without exposing them to danger. However if the Pawn had remained in the line of fire of an additional Pawn if it had actually moved only 1 space instead the 2, the other Pawn may still take it en passant, which way in passing. No other piece yet a Pawn might do this. Come demonstrate, set up your board together follows:

White Pawn at f5. Black Pawn in ~ e7. Black"s Pawn move from e7 to e5. White"s Pawn move from f5 come e6, death Black"s Pawn in ~ e5!

Note the if you intend to death a Pawn en passant, you have to do so instantly after the various other Pawn moves. If friend wait any turns, friend will lose that privilege.

The Touch-Move Rule

There space a number of strict rules about the emotional of pieces. Few of these rules space strictly enforced, if others space not. You and your foe must agree beforehand which of the adhering to rules will be enforced.

once you take her hand turn off a piece after relocating it, the relocate is final and can"t it is in retracted unless it can be proven the the move is illegal. This dominance is implemented even amongst novices. If friend touch among your pieces, girlfriend must move it, if possible. If you touch one opponent"s piece, you have to kill it, if possible. If you touch your own piece and an opponent"s piece, you have to kill the opponent"s piece with the item you touched, if possible. Otherwise, you need to kill the opponent"s piece with another piece, if possible. Otherwise, you must relocate your King, if possible. Otherwise, your adversary may dictate which item you should move. If girlfriend touch a piece which can"t it is in legally moved, your foe may force you to move your King, if possible. Otherwise, your foe may dictate which piece you must move. If friend touch one opponent"s item which can"t be killed, girlfriend must move your King, if possible. Otherwise, your adversary may dictate which item you have to move. If you touch more than among your pieces, your foe may dictate i beg your pardon of the piece you touched you have to move. If you touch a piece that can"t legally it is in moved and also pieces that have the right to legally be moved, your opponent may pick to force you to relocate your King, or among the piece you touch which have the right to legally be moved. In this case, if her King can"t legally move, your foe may dictate which item you have to move. If you touch an ext than one of your opponent"s pieces, your adversary may dictate which one you have to kill. As soon as you castle, you should touch your King prior to you touch your Rook. You may readjust pieces if they aren"t centred properly on a square, but only if you an initial declare your intention to perform so before touching the piece. If girlfriend touch a item while the is her opponent"s turn, girlfriend must move that piece as soon as your revolve comes, if possible, and all the above rules will apply to this move. For remote players, a item is not thought about to be touched uneven it is lifted up off the board. IN SHORT, don"t touch anything till you"re sure of what your relocate will be.

Time Limits

If there to be no time limits, the video game of chess can be rather boring - players may sit in contemplation for hours prior to deciding ~ above a move. In general, the much more time a player security thinking around his move, the far better the quality of his relocate will be. There space 6 straightforward ways time boundaries may be applied in a game. In one of two people case, the players should agree on the moment limits prior to the video game begins. Keep in mind that each player has his very own clock, i m sorry runs just while that is his turn. If either player runs the end of time, that forfeits the game. As soon as your turn begins, your foe starts running her clock. After you move, you have to stop your clock and also then start your opponent"s clock. If you room playing ~ above a computer, this is done for you automatically.

A specific amount of time provided for every move. This amount of time may variety from 2 minutes to 3 days (this may apply to football player who are playing online however due come scheduling distinctions can"t be online at the very same time). A particular amount of time in i beg your pardon a certain number of moves have to be made, for example 20 move in 40 minutes, or 40 moves in 30 minutes. As soon as this time has been got to for either player, if that player has actually not yet made the specified variety of moves, that forfeits the game. If he has actually reached that number of moves, the clock is reset because that the next specific number of moves. In this case, time you conserve on one move may be brought forward to the next move. A details amount that time in i m sorry the whole game must be played. This layout is typically used in tournaments in which gamings must be completed on schedule. Fischer time, a special form of clock in i m sorry you start with a certain amount of time, and also then another certain amount the time is added to her clock every time you move, for instance 10 minute to start and 31 seconds included for each move. This layout is right for casual gamings in which players have around the very same amount of time come think about each move if they complete within 20 moves, or if the game extends well past 99 moves. Hourglass time, in i beg your pardon one player"s clock counts under while the various other player"s clock counts up. In other words, the much more time your adversary takes, the much more time you can take. The advantage of this format of clock is the the game keeps relocating at a reasonable pace due to the fact that neither player wants the other to have a time advantage. The disadvantage that this style of clock is the you have about the same amount of time for every move, even though some positions require much more thought than others. Hybrids of the above formats, such as 40 minutes for the an initial 20 moves, and also 40 minutes because that the rest of the game.

Ways come draw

Everybody desires to win, however there are instances where you can"t win, but you still should prevent your opponent from checkmating you. In situations where no player is able to checkmate the other, the video game is a tie, or a draw, which is much less embarrassing 보다 losing. In fact, numerous games between grandmasters result in a draw. There space 7 methods in i beg your pardon this could happen. Agreement. Both football player agree ~ above a draw, for are afraid of every other. Repeated position. The same position occurs for the 3rd time through the exact same player come move, and no readjust in castling privileges. A player who wishes to explain a attract by repetitive position need to do so prior to he moves. Most computer system chess programs will announce a draw immediately when this instance arises, though in fact players may choose to proceed playing. Stalemate. If her King is no in check, yet you have no legitimate moves, the game is a draw. 50-move rule. If each player renders 50 consecutive moves without killing a piece or moving a Pawn (i.e. Every player makes 50 reversible move in succession), the following player to move may declare a draw. You may not declare a attract if your opponent"s last move was checkmate. Note that a castling or a King moving out of check by a Pawn is not technically reversible, yet is not topic to the exception to this rule. In the past, over there were rarely exceptions come this rule, in instances where it deserve to be proven the a player requires more than 50 moves to checkmate his opponent. However, because 1992 FIDE has eliminated all exception to the 50-move rule. Perpetual check. If you have the right to prove that you can put your opponent in examine forever, you may declare a draw. However, you are not obliged to perform so if girlfriend think you have the right to win. Concurrently running the end of time. Though your clock and your opponent"s clock run exclusively of each other, if you run out of time and your opponent fails to an alert this, and then your opponent additionally runs the end of time, you might declare a draw. If you don"t an alert that your foe has run out of time until after he checkmates you, that is as well late. You might not declare a attract anymore. Exhaustion of forces. Neither player has actually the pieces important to pressure checkmate. The following cases constitute a draw: King vs. King King and also Knight vs. King King and also Bishop vs. King King and also 2 Bishops ~ above the very same colour square vs. King (this is only feasible through pawn promotion) King and also 2 Knights vs. King King, Bishop, and Rook"s Pawn vs. King - only if the Pawn is moving towards a edge square that can never be populated by the Bishop.

Algebraic Notation

during official tournaments and also matches, players are forced to store track of the move they make during the game, because that the objective of evaluation and backtracking, if necessary. Because it would certainly be far too time-consuming to compose the relocate down as "I moved my King"s Rook 3 spaces forward and also checked mine opponent"s King", chessplayers have actually devised a quick notation that is universally understood. The rules for algebraic notation room as follows:

The Bishop, King, Knight, Queen, and Rook room abbreviated together B, K, N, Q, and R, respectively. The Pawn walk not have an abbreviation. The co-ordinates the the square to which the piece was relocated are given, for example if a Pawn move from e2 to e4, the move is simply detailed as e4, if if a Knight move from g8 come f6, the relocate is listed as Nf6. If a item is killed, a lowercase x is placed in between the abbreviation of the piece and also the co-ordinates of the square whereby the killing take it place, for example Nxe4. If a Pawn kills a piece, the document letter the the Pawn"s starting square is inserted at the beginning of the move, for example cxd6. If a Pawn is promoted, the abbreviation of the piece to i m sorry the pawn was promoted is appended to the move, for example d1Q or b8Q. An = authorize may likewise be used, for instance d1=Q or b8=Q. If 2 the same pieces might be relocated to the same square, the document letter that the item to be moved is given just prior to the co-ordinates that the destination square, for instance if a Knight in ~ b1 and a Knight at f3 space both capable of moving to d2, the move would be listed as Nbd2. In the occasion that 2 pieces on the same paper may move to the very same location, the variety of the rank is offered just prior to the co-ordinates that the destination square, for example if a Rook in ~ f1 and also a Rook in ~ f6 can both move to f2, the relocate would be detailed as R1f2. The number of each relocate is given before White"s move, for instance 1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 Bb5. Castling on the Kingside is listed as 0-0. Castling on the Queenside is noted as 0-0-0. If a Pawn captures an additional pawn en passant, the initials ep (or ip) may be appended come the move, for instance cxb3ep. If a relocate puts the the contrary player in check, a + sign is appended to the move, for example 0-0-0+. If a relocate checkmates the the opposite player (and thus wins the game), a # authorize is appended come the move, for example Qxf7#.

Sealed Moves

Sometimes you will be in a case where a game must it is in adjourned as result of the lateness of the hour, possibly the chess club wherein you space playing is closing, or you or your foe has a really important appointment. In this case, the player whose rotate it is need to decide top top a relocate within the time specified by the time controls, create his relocate down top top a item of file and seal the in an envelope, which his foe may not open up until the game recommences. The player then stops his clock yet does not start his opponent"s clock. The factor for this is so the the other player does not have substantially more time to decide on a move. When the game is booked to recommence, if the player that sealed the relocate does not present up within the previously agreed-upon time control, he forfeits the game, unless the sealed relocate is checkmate. This might happen if the player, at the time he composed down the move, didn"t realize that it would be checkmate.

Miscellaneous Rules

This ar discusses rule that execute not fall under any of the above categories.

as soon as discussing any type of past or future game, the human who played (or will play) White is always listed before the word vs. while the human who played (or will certainly play) black is always noted after the word vs.

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, for example in Paul Morphy vs. Viswanathan Anand, Paul Morphy play White and Viswanathan Anand played black color (The abovementioned game is intended together a joke, together Morphy died prior to Anand to be born). You may not death your very own pieces. You might not make any type of move that enables your opponent to death your King. In fact, you can"t also put your enemy in examine or checkmate if your own King still remains in check. You might not have more than one piece occupying a square at any type of given time. You may not have a piece inserted halfway top top one square and also halfway on an additional - it must be totally within one square. Keep in mind that chess is not checkers - you perform not kill pieces by jumping end them.

That"s the in a nutshell. Because that a much more detailed perform of rules, see