As important and also useful together the octet dominion is in chemistry bonding, there space some renowned violations. This does not median that the octet ascendancy is useless—quite the contrary. Similar to many rules, there space exceptions, or violations.

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There room three violations to the octet rule. Odd-electron moleculesA molecule with an odd variety of electrons in the valence shell of one atom. Stand for the an initial violation come the octet rule. Although they are few, some stable compounds have actually an odd number of electrons in your valence shells. V an odd number of electrons, at the very least one atom in the molecule will have to violate the octet rule. Examples of stable odd-electron molecules room NO, NO2, and also ClO2. The Lewis electron period diagram because that NO is together follows:


Although the O atom has actually an octet the electrons, the N atom has actually only seven electrons in that is valence shell. Back NO is a steady compound, that is very chemically reactive, together are many other odd-electron compounds.

Electron-deficient moleculesA molecule with much less than eight electron in the valence shell of one atom. Represent the second violation to the octet rule. These secure compounds have actually less than eight electrons roughly an atom in the molecule. The most usual examples space the covalent link of beryllium and also boron. Because that example, beryllium can form two covalent bonds, causing only four electrons in the valence shell:


Boron commonly makes only three covalent bonds, resulting in only six valence electrons approximately the B atom. A well-known example is BF3:


The 3rd violation come the octet dominion is discovered in those compound with an ext than eight electrons assigned to your valence shell. These are called expanded valence covering moleculesA molecule with an ext than eight electrons in the valence shell of an atom.. Such compounds are created only by main atoms in the 3rd row of the regular table or beyond that have empty d orbitals in their valence shells that can participate in covalent bonding. One such compound is PF5. The just reasonable Lewis electron period diagram because that this compound has actually the ns atom making five covalent bonds:


Example 9

Identify each violation come the octet dominion by drawing a Lewis electron dot diagram.

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With one Cl atom and one O atom, this molecule has 6 + 7 = 13 valence electrons, so it is one odd-electron molecule. A Lewis electron dot diagram because that this molecule is as follows:


In SF6, the main S atom provides six covalent bonds come the six bordering F atoms, so it is an expanded valence shell molecule. Its Lewis electron period diagram is together follows:

Test Yourself

Identify the violation to the octet rule in XeF2 by illustration a Lewis electron period diagram.


Key Takeaway

There are three violations come the octet rule: odd-electron molecules, electron-deficient molecules, and expanded valence shell molecules.