Charles Dickens together Social Commentator and Critic

Dr Andrzej Diniejko, D. Litt. In English Literature and Culture, Warsaw University; Contributing Editor, Poland

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ickens was not only the an initial great urban novelist in England, but likewise one the the most important social commentators who offered fiction effectively to criticize economic, social, and also moral abuses in the victorian era. Dickens confirmed compassion and also empathy towards the vulnerable and also disadvantaged segment of English society, and contributed to several necessary social reforms. Dickens’s deep social commitment and awareness of society ills are acquired from his traumatic childhood experiences when his father was imprisoned in the Marshalsea Debtors’ prison under the Insolvent Debtors action of 1813, and he at the period of twelve worked in a shoe-blacking factory. In his adult life Dickens developed a strong social conscience, an capability to empathise through the victim of social and also economic injustices. In a letter come his girlfriend Wilkie Collins dated September 6, 1858, Dickens write of the prestige of society commitment: “Everything that happens <…> shows beyond mistake that you can’t shut the end the world; that you room in it, to it is in of it; the you gain yourself into a false position the moment you try to sever yourself from it; that you should mingle v it, and also make the finest of it, and also make the best of yourself into the bargain” (Marlow, 132).

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Dickens thought in the ethical and political potential of literature, and also the novel in particular, and he cure his fiction together a springboard because that debates around moral and also social reform. In his novels the social analysis Dickens came to be an outspoken movie critic of unjust economic and also social conditions. His deeply-felt social commentaries assisted raise the cumulative awareness that the reading public. Dickens contributed considerably to the development of windy opinion which to be gaining an enhancing influence on the decisions of the authorities. Indirectly, he added to a series of legitimate reforms, including the abolition the the inhumane imprisonment for debts, purification that the Magistrates’ courts, a better management that criminal prisons, and also the limit of the funding punishment.

The Novel a Repository of social Conscience

Dickens to be a great moralist and a perceptive society commentator. He was by no means fully under the affect of Carlyle, yet he complied with his teaching as soon as he exposed the ills of victorian society. Back his fiction was not politically subversive, he referred to as to remedy acute social abuses. ~ Dickens’s death his social theory was lengthy regarded together oversimplified, yet as woman Smiley discussed in The Guardian, in recent years it has actually been reassessed:

For example, in the 1960s and also 70s, the era the the new left, Dickens was taken into consideration well-meaning yet naive; his “programme” was thought to be poorly resolved and inconsistent — no Marxist sufficient (though Marx was a an excellent fan of Dickens). After ~ Marxism went out of fashion, Dickens’s amorphous society critique pertained to seem an ext universally true because it was no programmatic but based upon feelings that generosity and also brotherhood merged with specific criticisms of practices usual in England during his lifetime.

Dickens was no the very first novelist to attract attention that the analysis public to the deprivation of the lower classes in England, yet he to be much much more successful 보다 his predecessors in exposing the ills that the industrial society including course division, poverty, poor sanitation, privilege and also meritocracy and the suffer of the metropolis. In usual with numerous nineteenth-century authors, Dickens used the novel together a repository of social conscience. However, together Louis James argues:

Dickens is at once central and untypical in the ‘social novel’. A novelist universally associated with society issues, he was attacked for allowing his creativity to come in between his writing and also his subject, and also his underlying mindsets can be evasive. In his fiction, most personalities have a job; but Dickens seldom shows them in ~ work. His novels space centrally about social relationships, however his design for this would seem, as Cazamian noted, a perpetual Christmas of warm feelings, and the benevolent paternalism that Fezziwig in A Christmas Carol (1843). Also his clearly working-out that class and industrial concerns in difficult Times (1854), based upon a hasty visit come a factory strike in Preston, identified the factory problem not through economics however with the utilitarian denial of human imagination, and juxtaposed the factory of Coketown against the bizarre human being of Sleary’s travelling circus. <548>

yet much radicals admired him, Dickens was never ever a radical author, however he to be much an ext sensitive to society abuse than William Makepeace Thackeray, and responded readily to the involves of the problem of England Question.

The problem of England


One example of Dickens"s ideal world and also two of his darker visions in Phiz"s illustrations, i beg your pardon Dickens very closely supervised: (a) Christmas eve at Mr. Wardle"s. 2 scenes in debtor"s prison: (b) Mr. Pickwick sits for his Portrait. (c) The Warden"s Room.

In The Pickwick documents (1837) Dickens created a utopian and nostalgic vision that pre-Victorian and pre-industrial England prior to a rapid industrialisation and also urbanisation. Although the novel was designed to be comic, the is not free of Dickens’s characteristic society commentary, which would certainly become more pronounced in his later on novels. The explanation of Eatanswill (Chapter 13) and the grim Fleet jail (Chapter 41) anticipate few of Dickens’s preoccupations v the problem of England, which are revealed in his succeeding novels handling the darker and more disgusting next of victorian times. The adhering to passage native The Pickwick records anticipates Dickens’s lifelong worry with the impacts of industrialisation ~ above English society.

It was quite dark as soon as Mr. Pickwick roused himself sufficiently to look out of the window. The straggling cottages by the roadside, the dingy hue that every thing visible, the murky atmosphere, the courses of cinders and also brick-dust, the deep-red bright of heating system fires in the distance, the volumes of thick smoke issuing heavily forth native high toppling chimneys, blackening and obscuring everything around; the glare of remote lights, the ponderous wagons i beg your pardon toiled along the road, laden with clashing rods that iron, or piled with heavy items — every betokened your rapid approach to the an excellent working city of Birmingham.

together they rattled through the narrow thoroughfares resulting in the love of the turmoil, the sights and sounds of earnest occupation struck much more forcibly on the senses. The highways were thronged v working people. The hum of work resounded indigenous every house; lights gleamed from the long casement windows in the attic storeys, and also the whirl the wheels and noise of machine shook the tremble walls. The fires, who lurid, sullen light had actually been visible for miles, blazed fiercely up, in the good works and factories of the town. The din of hammers, the rushing that steam, and the hefty clanking of engines was the harsh music which emerged from every quarter. <632-33>

Dickens’s later novels contain few of his most trenchant piece of society commentary. Beginning with his second novel, Oliver Twist, through Nicholas Nickleby, A Christmas Carol, The Chimes, Dombey and also Son, bleak House, tough Times, and ending with tiny Dorrit, Dickens completely rejected the cases of classical economics and showed his moral worry for the social wellness of the nation. His beforehand novels reveal isolated abuses and also shortcomings of individual people, whereas his later on novels save on computer a bitterness diagnosis of the condition of England.

Oliver twist (1837-39), which to represent a radical change in Dickens’s themes, is his an initial novel to carry a society commentary similar to that consisted of in the subsequent Condition-of-England novels. According to louis Cazamian, “the success of Twist confirmed Dickens’ determination to compose on social topics, and also the start of Chartism method that the burning social concern of the day was the difficulty of the working course ” (164). Dickens explores numerous social themes in Oliver Twist, however three space predominant: the abuses of the new Poor regulation system, the evils of the criminal civilization in London and also the victimisation of children. The critique that the negative Law the 1834 and the management of the workhouse is gift in the opened chapters the Oliver Twist. Dickens offers the most uncompromising critique the the victor workhouse, i beg your pardon was operation according to a regimen of prolonged hunger, physical punishment, humiliation and also hypocrisy.

In comparison to Pickwick, in Oliver twisted Dickens mirrors England together a nation of what Disraeli referred to as “the two nations”: the rich and also privileged and the negative living in abject and also inhumane problems of deprivation, misery and also humiliation. Many characters of Oliver Twist function as allegories. Dickens challenges the well-known Victorian beliefs that some human being are more prone to vice 보다 others. Choose Frances Trollope, Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna, Charlotte Brontë and also Elizabeth Gaskell, Dickens was completely aware that the victimisation of females in victor society. Nancy is forced into prostitution through poverty, hunger and life in a corrupt environment. Man Bayley points the end that

Nancy’s life is the living of England, a nightmare culture in which drudgery is endless and also stupefying, in which the organic affections room warped, and also the dignity that man appears only in resolution and also violence. That is a an ext disquieting picture than the carefully and also methodically symbolized social panoramas of cold House, little Dorrit, and Our common Friend. <61>

In Oliver twisted Dickens presents a portrait that the macabre childhood of a considerable variety of Victorian orphans. The orphans room underfed, and for a enjoy the meal they are offered a solitary scoop the gruel. Oliver, among the oppressed children, dares come ask for an ext gruel and also is severely punished.

The evening arrived; the boys took their places. The master, in his cook’s uniform, stationed himself at the copper; his pauper assistants ranged themselves behind him; the gruel was offered out; and also a lengthy grace was claimed over the short commons. The gruel disappeared; the guys whispered each other, and winked in ~ Oliver; when his next neighbors nudged him. Son as the was, he was desperate v hunger, and reckless through misery. He increased from the table; and also advancing to the master, basin and spoon in hand, said: somewhat alarmed in ~ his very own temerity: ‘Please, sir, I desire some more.’ <15>

This scene, which has end up being “the most acquainted incident in any kind of English novel” (Sanders, 412), strongly appealed come the victorian conscience. Dickens tested the victorian idea the charity because that the so-called “deserving poor”. He verified persuasively that the workhouse was a failed effort to fix the difficulty of poverty and unwanted children.

Oliver Twist deserve to be read as a textbook that Victorian child abuse and also a social paper about beforehand Victorian slum life. Once Oliver goes with Sowerberry to fetch the human body of a woman dead that starvation, he deserve to see an appalling check out of derelict slum houses.

Some residences which had become insecure indigenous age and decay, were prevented from falling into the street, by substantial beams of lumber reared against the walls, and firmly planted in the road; however even these crazy dens seemed to have been selected as the nightly haunts of some houseless wretches, for plenty of of the unstable boards which gave the place of door and window, were wrenched from your position, to afford an aperture broad enough because that the i of a person body. The kennel to be stagnant and also filthy. The an extremely rats, which here and also there put putrefying in that is rottenness, to be hideous v famine. (Ch. 5, 44)

Dickens prospered in making victorian public opinion much more aware the the problems of the poor. He portrayed persuasively the disorder, squalor, blight, decay, and also the human being misery the a modern-day industrial city. Return the initial problem of England discourse transforms into a sentimental moral fable ~ above the succeeding pages, Oliver twist is critical manifestation the Victorian social conscience.


Three the Phiz"s illustrations for Nicholas Nickleby: (a) Nicholas Starts for Yorkshire. (b) The Internal economic situation of Dotheboys Hall. (c) Nicholas Astonishes Mr. Squeers and Family.

The motif of boy abuse in the context the Victorian education system is continued in Nicholas Nickleby (1838-9). The novel includes a significant social commentary on the conditions of colleges where unwanted youngsters were maltreated and also starved. Nicholas is sent to Dotheboys Hall, a college run by the cruel and also abusive headmaster Wackford Squeers.

Pale and also haggard faces, lank and bony figures, children with the countenances the old men, deformities v irons upon your limbs, boys of stunted growth, and others whose long meagre legs would certainly hardly bear their stooping bodies, all overfilled on the watch together; there were the bleared eye, the hare-lip, the crooked foot, and every ugliness or distortion the told that unnatural aversion conceived by parents for their offspring, or of young resides which, from the more quickly dawn that infancy, had been one terrible endurance of cruelty and neglect. There were small faces which should have been handsome, darkened with the scowl that sullen, dogged suffering; there to be childhood through the irradiate of that eye quenched, its beauty, beauty gone, and also its helplessness alone remaining; there were viciousfaced boys, brooding, with leaden eyes, like malefactors in a jail; and there to be young creatures on who the guilty of your frail parents had descended, weeping also for the mercenary registered nurses they had known, and also lonesome also in your loneliness. With every kindly sympathy and affection blasted in that is birth, through every young and also healthy emotion flogged and also starved down, v every revengeful passion that deserve to fester in puffy hearts, eating its evil method to their main point in silence, what one incipient Hell was breeding here! <88>

The novel directs this ironical assault at victor public opinion, which was either unaware or condoned such therapy of poor children. Dickens was an essential about the Victorian education system, i m sorry is reflected not only in Nicholas Nickleby, tough Times and also Our mutual Friend, but likewise in his journalism and also public speeches. Together a boy he to be shocked to review reports about the cheap boarding institutions in the North. In Nicholas Nickleby Dickens explains abusive practices in Yorkshire boarding schools. However, Dickens go not only criticise the malicious education system, yet he is primarily pertained to with the fates of this unfortunate kids who are representatives the the most vulnerable part of the society.

Dickens’s novella, A Christmas Carol (1843), is an anti-Malthusian tale. The author shows his disgust with the Malthusian principle of uncontrolled population growth. Scrooge speaks around charity collector favor Malthus, who proposed abolition of poor laws:

“If lock would fairly die,” said Scrooge, “they had much better do it, and also decrease the surplus population.”<21>

A Christmas Carol was Dickens’s response to the children Employment board of directors Report ~ above the miseries suffered by many negative children. Dickens exposed suggestively selfishness and greed as the leading features the his England. That described virtually in a documentary path Christmas commemorated by the working bad of early-Victorian England.

Although Dickens’s at an early stage works implied faith in the brand-new commercial middle course as protest to the old aristocracy, the writer saw the discrepancy in between the ideas and also practice of this new class and also the values of morality and ethic. Together a society commentator, Dickens saw the require for the reform of English society; he urged that the wealthy and privileged exhibit a better humanitarianism towards the poor and also the vulnerable.

During the 1850s Dickens’s understanding shifted slowly from the check of individual society ills come the examination of the state the society, particularly its laws, education, industrial relations, the terrible conditions of the poor. Increasingly, apart from fictional plots, his novels consisted of a significant amount of social commentary comparable to Henry Mayhew’s nonfictional narratives around the London poor.


Two the Phiz"s illustrations for bleak House. (a) extreme poverty: The Visit come the Brickmaker"s. (b) treatment of bad children: Mr. Chadband "Improving" a difficult Subject.

Although Bleak house (1852-53) is often dubbed England’s first authentic donation to modern detective fiction, it also sharply indicts the inequities in victorian society. Dickens’s ideal novel, although no his many popular, that exposes the abuses the the court of Chancery and also administrative incompetence. Because that Dickens, the Court the Chancery came to be synonymous with the faulty legislation system, high value court fees, administrative practices, technicality, hold-up and inconclusiveness that judgments. Except the critique the the chancery courts, Dickens additionally criticises slum housing, overcrowded urban graveyards, ignore of contagious diseases, electoral corruption, preachers; class divisions, and also neglect of the educational needs of the poor. The publication opens through the famous description of London in fog.

Fog everywhere. Fog increase the river, whereby it flows among green aits and meadows; fog under the river, whereby it rolfes defiled among the tiers that shipping, and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city. Fog top top the Essex marshes, fog ~ above the Kentish heights. Fog creeping right into the cabooses the collier-brigs; fog lying out on the yards, and also hovering in the rigging of good ships; fog drooping ~ above the gunwales of barges and tiny boats. Fog in the eyes and also throats of old Greenwich pensioners, wheezing by the firesides of their wards; fog in the stem and also bowl the the afternoon pipeline of the wrathful skipper, under in his close cabin; fog cruelly pinching the toes and fingers of his shivering little prentice young on deck. Chance civilization on the bridges peeping over the parapets into a nether sky of fog, through fog every round them, together if they were up in a balloon, and hanging in the misty clouds.<3>

This fog is also really symbolic. It stands for institutional oppression i beg your pardon penetrates right into every segment of victorian society. Dickens watch London together a place of human being misery, and also the people he consciousness is administer by greed and also money. Cold House additionally carries a warning versus the excesses that the laisez-faire economy. The descriptions of streets, buildings and also people room realistic and also reflect the living problems of England in the mid-19th century. The colour in the novel are mainly grey and black, and the fog becomes among the central symbols of the novel.


Three the Phiz"s dark-plate illustrations for cold House. (a) city squalor: Tom every Alone"s. Darkness inside and outside Chesney Wold: (b) The Ghost"s Walk. (c) Sunset in The lengthy drawing-room in ~ Chesney Wold.

Bleak House offers not just a satirical look in ~ the legal mechanism in England, which frequently destroys the stays of chaste people, but additionally offers a vast panorama of victorian England, which contains the foggy roadways of London, filthy slums, the maze that the inns of Court and additionally the relaxed countryside, with personalities ranging indigenous murderous villains, a “fallen woman” (Lady Deadlock) to virtuous girls and members of landed aristocracy, all of whom are influenced by the flaws that the torturous victor judiciary system. The atmosphere, places and also events are described with good authenticity. In this view Bleak home is among the most vital novels about the problem of victor society. As terrycloth Eagleton has actually noted, “Dickens watch his culture as rotting, unravelling, so freighted v meaningless issue that that is sinking back gradually into some primeval slime ” (40).

Bleak residence does not merely refer come Mr. Jarndyce’s home but likewise to the problem of England, which is stood for as a “ gloomy edifice” and whose judicial system must be reformed if England wants to proceed as a contemporary nation. Dickens explains emphatically city poverty through the instance of the slum street,where bad Jo lives, in a manner similar to the toilet Reports. The ethical corruption of chancery is juxtaposed through the physical degeneration of the slums:

Jo lives — that is to say, Jo has not yet passed away – in a ruinous place known to the favor of that by the surname of Tom-all-Alone’s. That is a black, dilapidated street, avoided by every decent people, where the crazy homes were seized upon, once their degeneration was much advanced, by some bold vagrants that after establishing their own possession required to letting them out in lodgings. Now, this tumbling tenements contain, by night, a swarm of misery. As on the damaged human wretch vermin parasites appear, therefore these ruined shelters have actually bred a group of foul presence that crawls in and out that gaps in walls and also boards; and also coils itself to sleep, in maggot numbers, wherein the rain drips in; and also comes and goes, fetching and carrying fever and sowing an ext evil in its every footprint 보다 Lord Coodle, and Sir thomas Doodle, and the duke of Foodle, and all the fine gentlemen in office, down to Zoodle, shall set right in five hundred years – though born specifically to execute it. Twice lately there has actually been a crash and also a cloud the dust, choose the springing the a mine, in Tom-all-Alone’s; and also each time a house has fallen. These mishaps have make a i in the newspapers and also have to fill a bed or two in the nearest hospital. The gaps remain, and there room not unpopular lodgings amongst the rubbish. As several much more houses are almost ready come go, the following crash in Tom- all-Alone’s may be supposed to it is in a good one.

Dickens’s summary of Tom-All-Alone’s, a rookery in St Giles, eastern of Charing cross Road, deserve to be read both as historic evidence and also a an effective literary symbol of the condition of England, whereby uncontrolled industrialisation contributed, in Dickens’s opinion, to misery, decay and disease. Likewise, chancery stands as a bitter metaphor of ethical corruption i m sorry pervades the upper classes.

The social aftermath of industrialisation and urbanisation room perhaps most persuasively portrayed in hard Times (1854), which Dickens wrote at the prompting the urgent outside circumstances. Tough Times is more than any type of other the his Condition-of-England novels affected by Carlyle’s social criticism. It deals with a variety of social issues: industrial relations, education for the poor, class department and the best of common world to amusement. It also draws on modern-day concern with reforming divorce laws. Cazamian look at Dickens in tough Times together an “intermediary link in between the social thought of Carlyle and also Ruskin.” (173) Raymond Williams described Hard Times as “a thorough-going and creative examination the the leading philosophy of industrialism — that the hardness the Mrs Gaskell witnessed as little more than a misunderstanding, which might be patiently damaged down” (93). Similarly, in his study, “The Rhetoric of tough Times”, David Lodge wrote:

On every page difficult Times manifests its identification as a polemical work, a critique that mid-Victorian industrial culture dominated by materialism, acquisitiveness, and ruthlessly compete capitalist economics. Come Dickens, at the moment of writing tough Times, these points were represented many articulately, persuasively, (and thus dangerously) by the Utilitarians. <86>

Dickens, choose Thomas Carlyle and also many other modern-day intellectuals, criticised Utilitarianism, although they perplexed utilitarian ethics with laissez-faire commercial capitalism, which, choose Utilitarianism, was based on the self-interest principle.

In hard Times Dickens created a Condition-of-England novel, which directly engaged with modern-day and social issues. The volume execution of the novel boring the subtitle: “For this Times”, which referred to Carlyle’s essay the 1829 “Signs the the Times” (text). As Michael Goldberg has actually pointed out, “Carlyle continued to be a hero to Dickens transparent his life…” (2), and also his critique of Utilitarianism bears a strong affinity through Carlyle’s. Carlyle exposed the risks of a mechanistic and inhuman system which deprived people of such human characteristics as emotion, affection and imagination. Dickens echoes countless of Carlyle’s arguments versus the strength of society machinery and materialist consciousness. However, contrary to Carlyle, Dickens mirrors that the positive aspects of human nature space not quickly destroyed. Fancy, imagination, compassion and hope perform not disappear completely. Lock are preserved in such personalities as Sissy, Rachael and Sleary. Also Mr. Gradgrind revealed eventually some traces that humanness. Ultimately, Dickens did no take increase Carlyle’s favourite design template of the aristocratic hero as the saviour that a disintegrating society.

Coketown, the city that Fact, foreshadows the development of a monstrous fixed urban society based ~ above rationalism, anonymity, dehumanisation. The leading feature of the city is its innate ugliness. Its citizens lack individuality and also are the product of one inhuman, materialistic society.

It to be a city of red brick, or that brick the would have been red if the smoke and also ashes had permitted it; but as matters stood it to be a city of unnatural red and black like the painted confront of a savage. It was a city of machinery and tall chimneys, out of i beg your pardon interminable serpents of acting trailed themselves for ever and also ever, and also never gained uncoiled. It had actually a black color canal in it, and also a river that ran purple through ill-smelling dye, and large piles of building full the windows whereby there to be a rattling and a trembling all day long, and also where the piston of the steamengine functioned monotonously up and also down choose the head of one elephant a state that melancholy madness. It had several huge streets all really like one another, and also many little streets still more like one another, lived in by human being equally favor one another, that all walk in and also out at the very same hours, through the very same sound upon the same pavements, to carry out the very same work, and to whom every day was the same as yesterday and to-morrow, and every year the counterpart of the last and also the next.

In difficult Times human being relationships are contaminated by economics. The values of the ‘dismal science’ resulted in the formation of a selfish and atomistic society. The society commentary of tough Times is quite clear. Dickens is involved with the problems of the urban labourers and also the excesses the laissez-faire capitalism. He exposes the exploitation of the working class by unfeeling industrialists and also the damaging after-effects of propagating factual expertise (statistics) in ~ the expense of feeling and also imagination. However, although Dickens is an important about Utilitarianism, the cannot uncover a much better way of safeguarding society justice 보다 through honest means.“In ar of Utilitarianism, Dickens deserve to offer just good-heartedness, individual charity, and also Sleary’s horse-riding; like other writers ~ above the condition of England Question, that was far better equipped to study the symptom of the condition than to suggest a feasible cure” (Wheeler, 81).

Hard times proves that sophisticated is vital for human happiness, and also in this aspect it is just one of the finest morally uplifting novels. Dickens avoided propagating employer paternalism in the way of Disraeli, Charlotte Brontë and Gaskell, and strongly protest commodification of work in victorian England. As man R. Harrison has pointed out:

The target that Dickens’s criticism, however, was no Bentham’s Utilitarianism, nor Malthusian theory of population, no one Smith’s free-market economics, but the rudely utilitarianism derived from such principles by Benthamite philosophical Radicals, which often tended to conquer social, political, and economic thinking and also policy at the moment the novel was written. The Gradgrind/Bounderby philosophy is that the Coketown “ Hands” are commodities, “ something” to be worked so much and paid so much, to be “infallibly settled” through “laws of supply and demand,” miscellaneous that boosted in number by a details “ price of percentage” with accompanying percentages the crime and pauperism; in fact, “something wholesale, that which huge fortunes were made&rdquo.” <116>

hard Times was in reality an attack on the Manchester school of economics, which supported laissez-faire and promoted a distorted view of Bentham’s ethics. The novel has actually been criticised for not offering particular remedies for the Condition-of-England troubles it addresses. The is discuss whether services to social troubles are to it is in sought in fiction, yet nevertheless, Dickens’s novel guess the future debates worrying anti-pollution legislation, intelligent town-planning, health and also safety actions in factories and also a humane education and learning system.


Dickens as a society commentator exerted a profound affect on later on novelists cursed to social analysis. Several of his pertains to with the Condition-of-England question were further encountered in the novels the Charles Kingsley, George Eliot, George Gissing, George Orwell, and also recently in the postmodern novels of boy name Amis and also Zadie Smith.


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___. Nicholas Nickleby. Oxford: Oxford Unversity Press, 1999.

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Orwell, George. “Charles Dickens”, in inside the Whale and also Other Essays.

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Williams, Raymond. Society and Society, 1780-1950. New York: Columbia college Press, 1983.