The vertical columns top top the routine table are called groups/families.The horizontal rows ~ above the routine table are referred to as periods. Most of the facets in the periodic table room classified as metals.The aspects that touch the zigzag line are classified together metalloids.The facets in the far upper right edge are classified as nonmetals.Elements in the an initial group have one external shell electron and are very reactive. Lock are called alkali metals.Elements in the 2nd group have actually 2 outer shell electrons and are also really reactive. They are called earth alkali metals.Elements in groups 3 with 12 have actually many valuable properties and are referred to as transition metals.Elements in group 17 are recognized as “salt formers”. Castle are called halogens.Elements in team 18 are really unreactive. Lock are claimed to it is in “inert”. We call these the noble gasses.The aspects at the bottom that the table were pulled the end to keep the table from coming to be too long. The first period in ~ the bottom is called the lanthanides.The second period at the bottom that the table is referred to as the actinides.

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The table is likewise arranged in upright columns called “groups” or “families” and horizontal rows referred to as “periods.” Each setup is significant. The aspects in each vertical obelisk or team have comparable properties. Team 1 facets all have actually one electron in their outer shells (valence electron). This offers them comparable properties. Team 2 elements all have actually 2 electron (valence electrons) in their outer shells. This also gives them comparable properties.

There room a number of major groups with similar properties. They room as follows:

Hydrogen: This aspect does not complement the properties of any type of other group so it stands alone. That is placed over group 1 however it is not component of that group. That is a really reactive, colorless, odorless gas at room temperature. (1 valence electron)

Group 1: Alkali Metals – These steels are extremely reactive and are never found in nature in their pure form. They are silver colored and also shiny. Their thickness is incredibly low so the they are soft enough to be reduced with a knife. (1 valence electron)

Group 2: Alkaline-earth Metals – Slightly less reactive than alkali metals. They are silver colored and more dense 보다 alkali metals. (2 valence electrons)

Groups 3 – 12: change Metals – these metals have a moderate selection of reactivity and also a wide variety of properties. In general, they space shiny and an excellent conductors that heat and also electricity. They additionally have higher densities and melting points than groups 1 & 2. (1 or 2 valence electrons)

Lanthanides and Actinides: These space also transition metals the were taken out and also placed in ~ the bottom that the table therefore the table i will not ~ be so wide. The aspects in each of this two periods share many properties. The lanthanides (elements 58-71) are shiny and also reactive. The actinides (elements 90-103) space all radioactive and also are therefore unstable. Elements 95 through 103 perform not exist in nature but have been manufactured in the lab.

Group 13: Boron group – contains one metalloid and 4 metals. Reactive. Aluminum is in this group. That is additionally the many abundant metal in the earth crust. (3 valence electrons)

Group 14: Carbon group – includes on nonmetal, 2 metalloids, and also two metals. Varied reactivity. (4 valence electrons)

Group 15: Nitrogen Group – contains two nonmetals, two metalloids, and one metal. Differed reactivity. (5 valence electrons)

Group 16: Oxygen Group – consists of three nonmetals, one metalloid, and also one metal. Reactive group. (6 valence electrons)

Groups 17: Halogens – all nonmetals. Very reactive. Bad conductors of heat and electricity. Have tendency to kind salts with metals. Ex. NaCl: sodium chloride also known as “table salt”. (7 valence electrons)

Groups 18: Noble Gases – Unreactive nonmetals. All are colorless, odorless gases at room temperature. All discovered in earth’s setting in little amounts. (8 valence electrons)


1. for these elements, compose the noble gas configuration and also Lewis period diagrams except use the complete electron construction for H.

H 1s1

Li 2s1

Na 3s1

K 4s1

2. What is the exact same for each?

They have the same variety of valence electrons.

Valence electrons room the electrons discovered in highest energy level (s and p electrons) The variety of valence electrons is the same as the family members number in the A group. (see figure 6-9)

***Atoms in the same team have comparable chemical properties since they have the same variety of valence electrons.

T/F. Remember do the false into true.

T F 3. Lithium is one alkali metal.

T F4. Iodine is not chemically comparable to tellurium.

T F 5. The electron configuration for the halogens is s2 p5.

T F 6. The alkali planet metals are more less reactive than the alkali metals.

T F 7. Lavoisier Mendelev would certainly be thought about the dad of the modern periodic table.

T F 8. Moseley’s regular table was arranged by enhancing atomic number.

T F 9. Sodium is a nonmetal metal.

T F 10. Aluminum is a metalloid metal.

T F 11. The “stairstep” heat divides steels from nonmetals ~ above the periodic table.

Name the element and also write the noble gas construction for the aspect fitting each of the following descriptions.

12. the steel in team VA – Bismuth 6s24f145d106p3

13. the halogen in period 3 – Chlorine 3s23p5

14. the alkali metal in period 2 – Lithium 2s1

15. the change metal the is a liquid at room temperature – Mercury 6s24f145d10

16. FILL IN THE BLANK: create “increase(s)” or “decrease(s)” in the blank listed when describing each routine trend.


Atomic radius – the radius of one atom (See number 6-11 web page 163).

· The atom radii decreases as you move left-to-right, since the confident charge boosts (adding protons) and also the number of energy levels remains the same. The nuclear charge pulls the outermost electrons close come the nucleus. The hopeful pull of the proton is called the effective nuclear charge, likewise called the “Z effect”.· The atomic radii increases as you move down a group, due to the fact that the added number of energy levels overcomes the increase in atom charge. The electron on the within levels space shielding the positively fee nucleus and also the electrons spread out out even further.

Ionic radius – the radius of an ion (remember that ions have got or lost electrons). Figure 6-16, pg 167.

· as soon as atoms shed electrons to form cations, your radii decreases for 2 reasons: o The valence electrons are shed leaving an north orbital o The electrostatic repulsion between the now remaining electron decreases, allowing them come be pulled closer to the nucleus.· as soon as atoms get electrons to type anions, their radii increases. O The enhancement of one electron increases the electrostatic repulsion (like fees repel) forcing lock farther apart.· together you move left-to-right throughout a period the dimension of the ions gradually decreases. In ~ 5A (15) and 6A (16) the dimension increases and then reduce again. O facets that form cations are normally in teams 1A-4A (1,2,13, 14).o elements that form anions are generally in 5A-7A (15-17).· together you relocate down a group, the radii increases early out to added energy levels.

Ionization energy – the energy required to remove an electron indigenous an atom. Think the ionization energy as how strong an atom’s nucleus holds onto its electrons.

· an initial ionization energy is the energy needed to remove the an initial electron to form a cation.· second ionization power is the power needed to remove the 2nd electron indigenous a +1 ion, if it is possible.· Third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth and ninth ionizations are additionally possibilities.o together you move left-to-right across a period the first ionization energies normally increases because anions are uncovered on the right and also anions want to save their electrons.o together you relocate down a group, first ionization energies usually decreases since the aside from that the electron is native the positive pressure (protons in the nucleus), the simpler it is to remove.

Octet ascendancy – Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to gain a full set of eight valence electrons.

o The exemption is the an initial period elements, H and He, are finish with only 2 electrons.o The octet ascendancy determine the type of ion most likely to form. O aspects on the best side often tend to acquire electrons to type a noble gas configuration.o facets on the left side often tend to lose electrons to type a noble gas configuration.

Electronegativity – an element’s relative capacity of its atom to tempt electrons in a chemical bond.

o The values are based upon fluorine, i m sorry is 4.0.o Francium has the lowest electronegativity through 0.70.o together you relocate left-to-right the electronegativity increases due to the fact that anions are found on the right and also those aspects tend to obtain electrons.o together you relocate down a team the electronegativity decreases since the aside from that the electron is from the positive force (protons in the nucleus), the more difficult it is to attract electrons.


Reactivity – the capacity of an element to experience a chemical readjust – exactly how easy that is because that the atom come lose, acquire or share electrons.

· Metals are situated on the left side of the periodic table. All metals lose electrons in chemistry reactions o The reactivity of metals decreases as you relocate left to appropriate on the periodic table, because the atom radii are decreases making that harder to eliminate electrons.o The reactivity of steels increases as you move down a family, because the electrons are easier to remove once the atom radius is larger. · Non-metals are located on the appropriate side the the periodic table. Non-metals are more likely to obtain electrons throughout a chemical reaction. O The reactivity the non-metals increases together you move left to ideal on the regular table, since fewer electrons are necessary to finish the external shell. O The reactivity that non-metals decreases as you relocate down a family since the atom radii is increasing shielding the nuclear charge which attractive the electrons.

23. Which steel is the most reactive? Why?

Francium; because it has the lowest ionization energy.

24. Which non-metal is the many reactive? Why?

Fluorine; because it has actually the greatest electronegativity.

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True/False. Make the false into true. Use the patterns to answer this questions. Think about why these trends occur. Try to price these inquiries without looking at the summary below.