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French, 1682–1762


Spanish, 1762–1800


14,000 year ago—Beginnings the Indian occupancy of lower Mississippi Valley.

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1682—La Salle insurance claims the whole Mississippi flow drainage because that King louis XIV that France, and also names that in honor of King louis V.

1699—French colonists begin to resolve in Florida.

1718 New Orleans developed by a private French trading company as a point of deposit because that the transshipment of suspect exports native the Mississippi Valley, mostly furs, tobacco, and also indigo. Population in 1721: 277 whites, 172 black slaves, 21 Indian slaves. Over there are around 15,000 indians in the vicinity the today"s state of Louisiana.

1722—New olions is designated capital of Louisiana Territory.

1763 —In the treaty of Paris, i m sorry concluded the 7 Years" battle (known as the "French and Indian War" in north America), major land exchanges space made. Every one of Louisiana east of the Mississippi, except brand-new Orleans, goes to Britain. New Orleans and every one of Louisiana west that the Mississippi goes to Spain. Britain receives every one of Louisiana south of latitude 31 degrees and east of brand-new Orleans.

1764—The village of St. Louis, Missouri, called for saint-to-be luigi IX of France (1214-1270), is built by a team of 30 males commanded by 14-year-old Auguste Chouteau (1749-1829). Increasing numbers of English-speaking homesteaders settle along the tributaries the the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

1783—Following the battle of Independence, brother cedes its old Louisiana are land east of the Mississippi come the joined States, and also gives Florida ago to Spain.

1795—Charles Pinckney, U.S. Minister come Spain, negotiates commitment with Spain solving the southerly boundary the the United claims at the 31st parallel, and enabling Americans to use brand-new Orleans together a duty-free harbor for international commerce, because that renewable three-year periods.

French Owned, Spanish Controlled, 1800–1803


1800—Secretly, under push from Napoleon Bonaparte, King Charles IV of Spain provides Louisiana, including new Orleans, back to France, on condition that it no be marketed or given to any kind of other country. Spain maintain nominal manage over the whole territory.

1801—President cutting board Jefferson learns of the an enig Treaty of san Idelfonso. Considering French regulate over brand-new Orleans to it is in a serious threat, he instructs his Minister to France, Robert R. Livingston, to try to buy brand-new Orleans and also Florida, or at least western Florida. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, the French Minister of foreign Relations, decreases the offer.

1802—In October, the Spanish governmental official in brand-new Orleans, fan to increasing problems with "Kaintucks," rescinds the appropriate of deposit, in effect leaving frontier settlers without access to sectors for their produce, and also causing a nationwide uproar. President Jefferson, learning that the French could be ready to take into consideration selling new Orleans after ~ all, appoints James Monroe as minister and envoy come Spain and France. Congress appropriates $2 million because that the purchase.

1803—Napoleon, discouraged by his army"s fail to dominate Santo Domingo, the keystone the Spanish America, abandons his dream of extending his realm throughout the west Hemisphere. Needing money to prosecute his campaigns elsewhere on the globe, Napoleon decides to offer to sell all of Louisiana, including brand-new Orleans, to the joined States. Livingston states no, just brand-new Orleans. Talleyrand says Louisiana would be unsecured to France without the harbor city, and also asks Livingston to make an offer.

December 20—Lower Louisiana formally transferred to the U.S. At new Orleans.

American Territory, 1803–1819


1804March 9—Upper Louisiana formally moved to the U.S. In ~ St. Louis. Meriwether Lewis is the chief official witness.

May 14—Lewis & Clark exploration officially begins.

1806—Thomas Jefferson sends the Freeman-Custis exploration up the Red flow of the southern with the target of specifying the boundary between Louisiana and new Spain.

1807—William Clark is appointed Indian Agent for Louisiana Territory, and brigadier basic of the militia, posts he holds till his fatality in 1838. Meriwether Lewis is appointed governor of the territory.

1810—Louisiana is split into the territory of olions (today"s state that Louisiana) and the territory of Louisiana. The region of Orleans has a total population of 77,000 people.

1811—The delivery Tonquin, of man Jacob Astor"s Pacific hair Company, come at the mouth the the Columbia flow in March, to develop a trading short article on the site of today"s Astoria, Oregon.

1812—South Pass, the void that off the Wind River selection from the Antelope Hills in southwestern Wyoming, is uncovered by Robert Stuart and also his party that Astorians. His exploration remains unknown, however, till 1824, as soon as Crow ind tell trapper Jedediah Smith around the route. Soon Lewis and also Clark"s tortuous route throughout the Bitterroot variety will it is in left to the Indians when more.

1812—U.S. Annexes about half of West Florida come Louisiana Territory, and also the rest, native the Pearl flow to the Perdido River, to Mississippi Territory.

1812—Louisiana becomes the 18th state in the Union, and the remainder of Louisiana are is renamed Missouri Territory.

1812—John Jacob Astor"s partner, Wilson Price Hunt, come at Astoria, Oregon.

Statehoods, 1819–1912


1819 —The United states buys Florida from Spain.

1819—Major Stephen H. Lengthy is sent to find the resources of the Red River. This is the 3rd federally sponsored exploration into the land of the Louisiana Purchase.

1822—Fur Trader wilhelm Henry Ashley advertises because that 100 young males to help him build the fur trade on the upper Missouri River.

1824—U.S. Bureau of Indian to work established.

1830—Trapper B. L. E. Bonneville leads the an initial wagons through southern Pass, opened the way for a overwhelming of settlers to Oregon, Utah, and California. In between 1841 and also 1853, it will be used by 150,000 settlers and gold seekers. The main immigrant highway v the West currently leaves the Missouri river at Independence, Missouri, and heads overland increase the Platte.

1830—Andrew Jackson indications the Indian removal Act, which move all east Indians to western lands, over the "Trail of Tears."

1832—The steamboat Yellowstone reaches ft Union, top top the Missouri river at the mouth that the Yellowstone.

1833—Settlement that Iowa begins. The black Hawk War.

1842—Colonel man C. Fremont the the U.S. Military Topographical Corps leads the very first of several government funded expeditions through the West to open up new territory for development.

1843—In May, the very first of 1,000 pioneers leaves Missouri top top the Oregon Trail.

1843—John C. Fremont and also Kit Carson embark top top a fourteen-month exploration of the Snake and Columbia river Valleys.

1845 —Texas annexed.

1845—Florida admitted as the 27th state.

1846 —By treaty, Congress ends the share British and also American occupancy the Oregon Country. In the words of Massachusetts Representative Robert C. Winthrop, it to be time come assert "the best of ours manifest destiny to spread over our totality continent." The 49th parallel is designated together the U.S.-British border from the good Lakes come the Pacific Ocean.

1853 —Gadsden Purchase.

1862 —The house Act i do not care law.

1868 —Fort Laramie tranquility Conference. Sioux and also Northern Cheyenne Indian leader agree to move to reservations in Dakota Territory; the U.S. Government agrees to abandon roads and also forts in the Powder flow region, and also permit the indians to retain usage of the old searching grounds east of the Bighorn mountains in southern Montana Territory.

1868—The Fourteenth revised is ratified, granting complete citizenship to every naturalized or native-born persons, but not come Indians.

1869—Wyoming are becomes the an initial American political entity to give women the ideal to vote, add to the appropriate to host office and serve ~ above juries. Utah follows in 1870.

1871—Indian Appropriation action is passed. No further treaties through Indian nations will be enforcement by the United claims Congress. All treaties negotiated prior to 1871 space to stay in effect.

1907—Oklahoma, officially Indian region until 1905, becomes the 46th state in the Union. All the land within the original limits of Jefferson"s Louisiana has actually now gained statehood, v all the rights and privileges related to thereto. Other than the Indians, who land had actually been "redistributed" ~ the discovery of oil over there at the turn of the century. Some 60 tribes had been required to relocate there throughout the 1800s.

1912—Arizona and new Mexico come to be the 47th and also 48th states to be admitted to the Union. In political terms, the can be fried dimensions the the American West room complete.

Post Scripts:

1962—Indians in new Mexico are allowed to vote in state and federal elections.

1968—Indian Civil civil liberties Act assures civil civil liberties to tribal members on reservations, and also enables development of defect judicial systems.

1975—Indian Self-Determination & education and learning Assistance Act enables tribal federal governments to regulate their own housing, legislation enforcement, education, health, society service, and community advancement programs.

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1978—American Indian spiritual Freedom act furthers the government"s attempt to recognize and also respect tribal cultural rights.