1. The stem supports the plant, facilitates water and nutrient transport between the various parts the the plant, and contains organization that assist the plant grow.

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The stem supports the plant, holding increase the plant’s leaves, flowers, and fruits. Within the stem, bundles of vascular tissue, consisting of xylem and also phloem, deliver water, nutrients, food, and also other chemicals between the different parts of the plant. The xylem transports water and dissolved mineral from the root to the stem and also leaves. The phloem transports liquified sugars and also organic compounds indigenous the leaves to the stem and roots.

Cambium (present in dicots however not monocots) provides rise to secondary xylem and also phloem.


In both monocots and also dicots, the stem is mainly composed of floor tissue, which consists of loosely arranged cells with space between them. This enables for gas exchange between the stem and the air.

2. Monocot stems have scattered vascular bundles.

Monocot stem

In monocot stems, the vascular bundles room scattered transparent the soil tissue.

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Like monocot roots, monocot trunk are protected by an external layer the dermal tissue referred to as the epidermis. The rest of the stem is comprised of soil tissue and also vascular tissue.

The vascular tissue is arranged right into bundles the xylem and phloem that space scattered transparent the floor tissue. Within every bundle, the phloem is located closer come the external of the stem, and also the xylem is located closer to the inside of the stem.

3. Dicot stems have actually vascular majority that room arranged in a ring.

Dicot stem

In dicot stems, the vascular bundles space arranged in a ring.

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Like dicot roots, dicot stems are safeguarded by an outer layer of dermal tissue referred to as the epidermis. Then, also similar to dicot roots, dicot stems have actually a layer of floor tissue referred to as the cortex in ~ the epidermis. The vascular bundles in the stem space arranged approximately a ring that cambium, which contains cells that division to broaden the girth that the stem. This is comparable to the role of the cambium in dicot roots.

Within the vascular bundles, the xylem is located internal to the cambium ring, and also the phloem is situated exterior come the cambium ring, accompanied by sclerenchyma soil tissue. The ground organization located interior to the cambium ring is described as the pith.

4. The stem provides brand-new living tissue for the tree via primary and second growth.

There space two varieties of plant growth, and the stem plays an important role in both the them.

Primary growth wake up in all teams when a tree grows taller and also when it establishes roots, branches, leaves, and flowers. Plants that undergo only major growth and also have soft, green, non-woody trunk are known as herbaceous plants. They typically have one annual, biennial, or perennial life cycle, meaning that they partly or fully die ~ a season and also have to re-grow.

Secondary growth occurs as soon as dicot stems and also roots flourish wider. Frequently, this requires the advance of a woody stem, which arises from a combination of the tasks of the stem’s vascular cambium and cork meristem tissues. However, not all dicots that undergo second growth have woody stems—for example, tomato, carrot, and also potato plants don’t have actually woody stems yet they perform undergo secondary growth.

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In general, monocots carry out not undergo an additional growth. If they do increase in girth (like palm trees and also yucca plants), it does not an outcome in the breakthrough of a an additional xylem and phloem, due to the fact that monocots don’t have actually vascular cambium. Rise in girth without an additional growth is referred to as anomalous thickening.