Binary Fission - kind of reproductionthat occurs in bacter cells, solitary celled biology splits and becomestwo the same organisms
Chromosomes space DNA wrappedaround protein to form an X-shaped structure.
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The diagram will aid you seethe relationship.
1. Chromosomes are discovered inthe nucleus2. Chromosomes space made the DNA3. Part of chromosomes are dubbed genes
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid(it is the genetic code that includes all the details needed come buildand preserve an organism)
Each organism has a distinctnumber the chromosomes, in humans, every cell consists of 46 chromosomes.Other biology have different numbers, for instance, a dog has 78 chromosomesper cell.
Somatic cells - human body cells,such as muscle, skin, blood ...etc. This cells contain a complete setof chromosomes (46 in humans) and are called DIPLOID.
Sex cell - additionally known together gametes.These cell contain half the number of chromosomes as body cells and arecalled HAPLOID
Chromosomes come in pairs,called Homologous pairs (or homologs). Imagine homologs as a matchingset, but they are not exacly alike, choose a pair of shoes.
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Diploid cells have 23 homologouspairs = full of 46
Haploid cells have actually 23 chromosomes(that are not paired) = complete of 23
Chromosomes identify the sexof one offspring. In humans, a pair of chromosomes called SEX CHROMOSOMESdetermine the sex.
If you have XX sex chromosomes- you room female
If you have actually XY sex chromosomes- you are male
During fertilization, spermcells will either save an X or a Y chromosome (in addition to 22 otherchromosomes - complete of 23). If a sperm include an X chromosome fertilizesan egg, the offspring will certainly be female. If a sperm cabinet containing a Y chromosomefertilizes an egg, the offspring will certainly be male.
Creationof a Zygote
When two sex cells, or gametescome together, the resulting fertilized egg is called a ZYGOTE
Zygotes are diploid and havethe full 46 chromosomes (in humans)
A karyotype is a snapshot ofa person"s (or fetus) chromosomes. A karyotype is regularly done to determineif the offspring has actually the correct variety of chromosomes. An incorrect numberof chromosomes indicates that the son will have a condition, choose DownSyndrome
Compare the Karyotypesbelow
Notice that a human being with DownSyndrome has actually an extra chromosome #21. Rather of a pair, this person has3 chromosomes - a problem called TRISOMY (tri = three)
Trisomy results once chromosomesfail to separate - NONDISJUNCTION - once sex cells room created. The resultingegg or sperm has actually 24 rather of the common 23.
Other conditions an outcome fromhaving the wrong variety of chromosomes:
Klinefelters Syndrome - XXY(sex chromosomes)
Edward Syndrome - Trisomyof chromosome #13
**Try constructingyour very own Karyotype athttp://www.biology.washington.edu/karyotyping/karyotypeSample1.html