growth and also repaircreation that gametes (sexcells)method the reproduction inunicellular organisms

Binary Fission - kind of reproductionthat occurs in bacter cells, solitary celled biology splits and becomestwo the same organisms

Chromosomes andDNA


Chromosomes space DNA wrappedaround protein to form an X-shaped structure.

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The diagram will aid you seethe relationship.

1. Chromosomes are discovered inthe nucleus2. Chromosomes space made the DNA3. Part of chromosomes are dubbed genes

DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid(it is the genetic code that includes all the details needed come buildand preserve an organism)



Chromosome Numbers

Each organism has a distinctnumber the chromosomes, in humans, every cell consists of 46 chromosomes.Other biology have different numbers, for instance, a dog has 78 chromosomesper cell.

Somatic cells - human body cells,such as muscle, skin, blood ...etc. This cells contain a complete setof chromosomes (46 in humans) and are called DIPLOID.

Sex cell - additionally known together gametes.These cell contain half the number of chromosomes as body cells and arecalled HAPLOID

Chromosomes come in pairs,called Homologous pairs (or homologs). Imagine homologs as a matchingset, but they are not exacly alike, choose a pair of shoes.

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Diploid cells have 23 homologouspairs = full of 46

Haploid cells have actually 23 chromosomes(that are not paired) = complete of 23


Sex Determination

Chromosomes identify the sexof one offspring. In humans, a pair of chromosomes called SEX CHROMOSOMESdetermine the sex.

If you have XX sex chromosomes- you room female

If you have actually XY sex chromosomes- you are male

During fertilization, spermcells will either save an X or a Y chromosome (in addition to 22 otherchromosomes - complete of 23). If a sperm include an X chromosome fertilizesan egg, the offspring will certainly be female. If a sperm cabinet containing a Y chromosomefertilizes an egg, the offspring will certainly be male.

Creationof a Zygote

When two sex cells, or gametescome together, the resulting fertilized egg is called a ZYGOTE

Zygotes are diploid and havethe full 46 chromosomes (in humans)


A karyotype is a snapshot ofa person"s (or fetus) chromosomes. A karyotype is regularly done to determineif the offspring has actually the correct variety of chromosomes. An incorrect numberof chromosomes indicates that the son will have a condition, choose DownSyndrome

Compare the Karyotypesbelow




Notice that a human being with DownSyndrome has actually an extra chromosome #21. Rather of a pair, this person has3 chromosomes - a problem called TRISOMY (tri = three)

Trisomy results once chromosomesfail to separate - NONDISJUNCTION - once sex cells room created. The resultingegg or sperm has actually 24 rather of the common 23.

Other conditions an outcome fromhaving the wrong variety of chromosomes:

Klinefelters Syndrome - XXY(sex chromosomes)

Edward Syndrome - Trisomyof chromosome #13

**Try constructingyour very own Karyotype at