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The erector spinae muscle, additionally known together sacrospinalis and also extensor spinae in some texts is indigenous the deep muscles of the back. The lies superficial come the transversospinales muscle group and also deep to the intermediate team of earlier muscles (serratus posterior superior and inferior).

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The erector spinae muscle extends the vertebreal column. <1> the is formed of 3 muscles and also its yarn run much more or less vertically throughout the lumbar, thoracic and cervical regions. That lies in the groove to the side of the vertebral column. In cervical region it is spanned by nuchal ligament and also in thoracic and lumber region by thoracolumbar fascia.

It is made up of 3 muscles:

Medially by Spinalis Centerally by LongissimusLaterally by Illiocostalis

Each that these have 3 components further.

SPINALISLONGISSIMUSILLIOCOSTALIS
spinalis capitislongissimus capitisilliocostalis cervicis
spinalis cervicislongissimus cervicisilliocostalis thoracis
spinalis thoracislongissimus thoracisilliocostalis lumborum

Anatomy

Spinalis

Is the many medial component just next to the spine. The connects the spinous process of the adjacent vertebrae to each other.<2>

It is divided into 3 parts:<3>

MuscleOriginInsertion
Spinalis capitisUsually blends with semispinalis capitisWith semispinalis capitis
Spinalis cervicisSpinous procedure of C7 (sometimes T1 come T2) and also ligmentum nuchaeSpinous process of C2 and also C3-C4
Spinalis thoracisSpinous process of T11 come L2Spinous procedure of upper thoracic vertebrae

Longissimus

It develops the middle part of the erector spinae muscles, lateral come the spinalis. The longissimus muscle forms the main meat that the erector group. That attaches follow me the transverse procedure of the vertebrae.<2>

It is split into 3 parts:<2><3>

MuscleOriginInsertion
Longissimus capitisC4-T4 transverse processPosterior sheet of the mastoid process
Longissimus cervicisT1-T4 transverse processC2 come C6 transverse process
Longissimus thoracisTransverse procedure of lumbar vertebra and blends v iliocostalis in the lumbar regionTransverse process of every thoracic vertebrae

Iliocostalis

Is is the most lateral part of the erector spinae muscles. That attaches come the ribs.<2> due to the fact that of it"s lateral position, a tight iliocostalis can lug a i know good up, or bring the ribcage down towards the hip.

It is separated into 3 parts:<3>

MuscleOriginInsertion
Iliocostalis cervicisAngle of ribs 3-6Transverse process of C4-C6
Iliocostalis thoracisAngle of lower six ribsAngles that upper six ribs and also transverse process of C7
Iliocostalis lumborumIliac crestL1-L4 lumbar transverse processes, angle of 4-12 ribs and also thoracolumbar fascia

Action

Bilateral contraction they straighten the ago and pull the head posteriorly and also they are affiliated in the control the flexion that the vertebral coloumn.

Unilateral contraction bends the the vertbral pillar laterally and turns the head towards the contracting side.<2>

Nerve Supply

Doral rami of spinal nerves.<3>

Blood Supply

Branches of the vertebral, deep cervical, occipital, transverse cervical, posterior intercostal, subcostal, lumbar and also lateral sacral arteries.<2>


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Erector Spinae Muscle and also Low ago Pain 

The erector spinae muscle plays critical role in the spinal stability.

In patients v low ago pain over there is decreased task and atrophy that the multifidus muscle i beg your pardon compromises the spinal stability. The spinal control is compensated for by the increased task of the erector spinae muscle to stabilize the lumbar spine.

The increased task of erector spinae boosts the compression pack on the vertebral column, stimulating the nociceptors the the spinal structures repeatedly which may rises the risk of injury.<6>

The relationship in between Erector spinae muscle cross section area and low back pain is inconclusive, some studies found decrease in the erector spinae muscle mass v low earlier pain when others discovered no relation.<7>

Muscle Testing


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Erector Spinae Flexion-Relaxation Phenomenon

The flexion-relaxation phenomenon is identified as silencing of the erector spinae myoelectric task during complete trunk flexion.

In healthy individuals with no low earlier pain, the erector spinae muscle relaxes in the range from upright position to full-flexion lumbar, because of the deep ago muscles (multifidus) exhilaration to stabilize the lumbar spine.

While in individuals with low ago pain the erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon is absent as the erector spinae functions to stabilize the lumbar spine due to laxity the the passive structures and also changes in the neuromuscular activation pattern.

Lumbar stabilization exercise have the right to restore the erector spinae flexion-relaxation phenomenon by strengthening the multifidus muscle.

However, also in individuals with no low earlier pain there can be asymmetric stems flexion (combined v rotation or side bending) leading to asymmetric Flexion be safe phenomenon in the right and left erector spinae early out to factors like repeated asymmetric posture and also activities.

Asymmetry in the flexion be safe phenomenon increases the threat of low back pain. I beg your pardon could also be corrected by lumbar stabilization exercise.

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Myofascial relax of the erector spinae muscle in patients through non particular chronic low ago pain normalized the flexion-relaxation an answer and reduced low back pain.<11>