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Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001.


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Neuroglial cells—usually advert to just as glial cells orglia—are quite various from nerve cells. The major difference is thatglia carry out not participate directly in synaptic interactions and also electrical signaling,although your supportive functions aid define synaptic contacts and maintain thesignaling ability of neurons. Glia are more numerous 보다 nerve cells in thebrain, outnumbering castle by a proportion of maybe 3 come 1. Although glial cell alsohave facility processes expanding from their cell bodies, castle are usually smallerthan neurons, and also they lack axons and dendrites (Figure 1.4). The term glia (from the Greek native meaning“glue”) shows the nineteenth-century presumption the thesecells hosted the nervous system together in some way. The word has actually survived, despitethe lack of any type of evidence that binding nerve cells together is among the manyfunctions that glial cells. Glial roles that space well-establishedinclude maintaining the ionic milieu the nerve cells, modulating the rate of nervesignal propagation, modulating synaptic activity by regulating the uptake ofneurotransmitters, giving a scaffold for some aspects of neural development, andaiding in (or preventing, in some instances) recovery from neural injury.


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Figure 1.4

Neuroglial cells. Tracings of one astrocyte (A), one oligodendrocyte (B),and a microglial cell (C) visualized by impregnation with silver salts.The pictures are at approximately the exact same scale. (D) Astrocytes in thebrain labeled through an antibody versus (more...)


There space three types of glial cell in the mature main nervous system:astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and also microglial cells (Figure 1.4A—C).Astrocytes, i m sorry are limited to the brain and spinal cord, haveelaborate local processes that provide these cells a starlike illustration (hence theprefix “astro”). The significant function that astrocytes is tomaintain, in a range of ways, an appropriate chemical environment for neuronalsignaling. Oligodendrocytes, which space also limited to the main nervoussystem, lay under a laminated, lipid-rich wrapping called myelin about some, however notall, axons. Myelin has important effects on the rate of activity potential conduction(see chapter 3). In the peripheral worried system, the cell that sophisticated myelin are referred to as Schwann cells. Together thename implies, microglial cell are smaller cells obtained from hematopoietic stem cells (although some might be obtained directly native neural stem cells). Lock sharemany properties with tissue macrophages, and also are primarily scavenger cell thatremove cellular debris from sites of injury or common cell turnover. Indeed, someneurobiologists like to categorize microglia as a type of macrophage. Followingbrain damage, the variety of microglia at the site of injury increases dramatically.Some of this cells proliferate indigenous microglia residents in the brain, while otherscome indigenous macrophages that move to the injured area indigenous the circulation.

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By covenant with the publisher, this book is available by the find feature, however cannot it is in browsed.