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You are watching: The spinal cord gives rise to 31 pairs of

Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, et al., editors. Neuroscience. Second edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2001.

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The spinal cord extend caudally native the brainstem, running from themedullary-spinal junction at about the level that the very first cervical vertebra come aboutthe level that the twelfth thoracic vertebra (see figure 1.10). The vertebral tower (and the spinal cord in ~ it) isdivided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar,sacral, and also coccygeal regions. The peripheral nerves(called the spinal or segmental nerves) that innervate much of the bodyarise from the spinal cord"s 31 segmental pairs. The cervical an ar of the cordgives rise to eight cervical nerves (C1—C8), the thoracic to twelvethoracic nerves (T1—T12), the lumbar to five lumbar nerves(L1—L5), the sacral to five sacral nerves (S1—S5), and also thecoccygeal to one coccygeal nerve. The segmental spinal nerves leave the vertebralcolumn through the intervertebral foramina that lie adjacent to the respectivelynumbered vertebral body. Sensory information lugged by the afferent axons that thespinal nerves enters the cord via the dorsal roots, and motor commands carried bythe efferent axons leaving the cord via the ventral roots (see number 1.10C). As soon as the dorsal and also ventral roots join, sensoryand engine axons (with part exceptions) travel with each other in the segmental spinalnerves.

Two regions of the spinal cord room enlarged to accommodate the greater number ofnerve cells and also connections needed to procedure information related to the upper andlower limbs (see figure 1.10B). The spinalcord development that synchronizes to the eight is referred to as the cervicalenlargement and also includes spinal segment C5—T1; the expansionthat corresponds to the legs is referred to as the lumbar enlargement andincludes spinal segment L2—S3. Because the spinal cord is considerablyshorter 보다 the vertebral column (see Figure1.10A), lumbar and sacral nerves operation for some distance in the vertebralcanal prior to emerging, thus creating a collection of nerve roots recognized as the cauda equina. This region is the target for critical clinical procedure called a“lumbar puncture” that enables for the arsenal ofcerebrospinal fluid by placing a needle right into the an are surrounding these nerves towithdraw fluid for analysis. In addition, regional anesthetics can be safe introducedto produce spinal anesthesia; in ~ this level, the threat of damage to the spinal cordfrom a poorly inserted needle is minimized.

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By agreement with the publisher, this publication is available by the search feature, yet cannot it is in browsed.