All polysaccharides are developed by the same simple process: monosaccharides are linked via glycosidic bonds. When in a polysaccharide, separation, personal, instance monosaccharides are known as residues. Seen listed below are just some the the many monosaccharides produced in nature. Relying on the polysaccharide, any combination of them have the right to be an unified in series.

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The structure of the molecule being merged determines the structures and also properties that the resulting polysaccharide. The complicated interaction between their hydroxyl teams (OH), other side groups, the configuration of the molecules, and also the enzymes affiliated all influence the result polysaccharide produced. A polysaccharide used for energy storage will provide easy accessibility to the monosaccharides, while maintaining a compact structure. A polysaccharide offered for assistance is generally assembled as a lengthy chain of monosaccharides, i beg your pardon acts as a fiber. Numerous fibers together produce hydrogen bonds between fibers the strengthen the in its entirety structure of the material, as viewed in the picture below.


The glycosidic bonds in between monosaccharides covers an oxygen molecule bridging 2 carbon rings. The bond is formed when a Hydroxyl group is shed from the carbon of one molecule, while the hydrogen is shed by the hydroxyl group of another monosaccharide. The carbon ~ above the very first molecule will certainly substitute the oxygen indigenous the 2nd molecule as its own, and also glycosidic bond is formed. Since two molecule of hydrogen and one oxygen is expelled, the reaction created a water molecule as well. This kind of reaction is referred to as a dehydration reaction as water is gotten rid of from the reactants.

Examples the a Polysaccharide

Cellulose and Chitin

Cellulose and chitin room both structure polysaccharides the consist of numerous thousand glucose monomers an unified in lengthy fibers. The just difference between the 2 polysaccharides room the side-chains attached come the carbon rings of the monosaccharides. In chitin, the glucose monosaccharides have actually been modified through a group containing an ext carbon, nitrogen, and also oxygen. The next chain create a dipole, which rises hydrogen bonding. When cellulose can create hard structures favor wood, chitin can develop even more difficult structures, favor shell, limestone and also even marble when compressed.

Both polysaccharides type as long, linear chains. These chains type long fibers, which room deposited exterior the cell membrane. Particular proteins and other factors aid the fibers weave into a complicated shape, i m sorry is organized in place by hydrogen bonds between side chains. Thus, an easy molecules that glucose that were once provided for power storage deserve to be converted into molecules with structural rigidity. The only difference between the structure polysaccharides and also storage polysaccharides space the monosaccharides used. By changing the configuration of glucose molecules, instead of a structure polysaccharide, the molecule will certainly branch and also store many more bonds in a smaller sized space. The just difference between cellulose and also starch is the construction of the glucose used.

Glycogen and also Starch

Probably the most vital storage polysaccharides top top the planet, glycogen and also starch are developed by animals and plants, respectively. These polysaccharides are formed from a central starting point, and also spiral outward, because of their complex branching patterns. With the assist of miscellaneous proteins that attach to individual polysaccharides, the big branched molecules form granules, or clusters. This deserve to be watched in the image listed below of glycogen molecules and the connected proteins, viewed in the middle.


When a glycogen or starch molecule is damaged down, the enzymes responsible start at the ends furthest from the center. This is important, together you will notification that because of the substantial branching there are only 2 starting points, however many ends. This means the monosaccharides have the right to be conveniently extracted indigenous the polysaccharide and also be utilized for energy. The only difference between starch and also glycogen is the number of branches that occur per molecule. This is resulted in by various parts of the monosaccharides developing bonds, and also different enzymes exhilaration on the molecules. In glycogen a branch wake up every 12 or so residues, if in strength a branch occurs just every 30 residues.

Related biology Terms

Monomer – A single entity that can be merged to kind a bigger entity, or polymer. Polymer – has proteins, polysaccharides, and also many other molecules existing of smaller sized units combined together.


1. If friend haven’t brushed your this in a while, girlfriend might notification some yellow plaque beginning to build up. Component of the plaque is composed of dextrans, or polysaccharides the bacteria usage to save energy. Where perform the bacteria gain the monosaccharides to develop these polysaccharides? A. they synthesize them native sunlight. B.

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They create them from their genetic code. C. They collect them native the leftover food you eat.