External Reproductive Organs

Penis and Prepuce 

The stallion’s penis is composed of 3 parts: (1) the source or bulb, (2) the human body or shaft, (the main part), and also (3) the glans, the enlarged free end the the penis. Once not erect, the penis is 50 centimeter long and also 2.5 to 6 centimeter in diameter through the distal end 15 come 20 cm cost-free in the prepuce. Once erect, the penis doubles in length and also thickness and also the glans boosts by 3 come 4 times. The prepuce or sheath is a dual invagination the the skin that covers the distal portion of the prick when not erect. Examination of the penis and prepuce is most conveniently done at the time of washing. Permit the stallion to method the mare in order to be created to let down, at which time the prick extends native the sheath. Practice caution because some stallions might be reluctant to be examined and cow kick or kick backwards in ~ the examiner. Be careful to defend everyone involved. Research the penis and prepuce both manually and also visually. Master the obelisk of the dick just behind the glans. Examine the urethral procedure for lesions and the linked structures because that debris or other foreign material. The examination continues up the column where any kind of injuries, scars or other lesions space noted. With the dick exposed, examine the internal and also external section of the prepuce. Typically a small amount the greasy smegma is uncovered at the base of the penis. Any kind of trauma or injury to the penis or prepuce deserve to be very detrimental come the stallion’s capacity to cover a mare and could result in long term psychological problems. This is particularly true if the stallion is kicked through the mare when attempting to each other her. Trauma can likewise occur through improper managing of synthetic vaginas.

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The scrotum is an outpouching of skin in the inguinal area that encloses the testes. It has actually a longitudinal midline where the two sacs space fused. The scrotum might be check at the time of washing or after ~ ejaculation, which might be much safer for everyone involved. The stallion’s scrotum is no as pendulous together a bull’s and is held closer come the abdomen. The scrotum’s skin is soft and pliable through a greasy texture because of sebaceous glands. The scrotum is necessary in thermoregulation the the testicles.

Testicles and also Epididymides

The testes space ovoid structures, measure 8 come 12 cm lengthy by 6 come 7 cm high by 5 centimeter wide. Castle consist that seminiferous tubules in which spermatogenesis occurs and interstitial tissues of i beg your pardon the Leydig cells develop testosterone. The testicles need to be easily movable within the scrotal sac. The epididymides are separated into 3 parts: (1) head; (2) body and also (3) tail. The head that the epididymis is closely attached come the testicle’s anterior dorsal aspect. The human body of the epididymis proceeds along the testicle’s back side till it terminates at the rather huge tail the the epididymis that is loosely attached come the testicle’s tail. The testes and also epididymides space palpated through the scrotal wall to determine their presence, size, symmetry and consistency. The regular stallion has two testes. Palpation need to reveal that they have the exact same consistency through no abnormalities of shape or texture. The right testis is typically slightly smaller sized than the left. Identify testicular dimension by measure up scrotal width of both testicles. Measure up scrotal width using calipers at the allude of greatest width v a nonerect penis. Scrotal broad is positively associated with daily sperm production and also output. Regular scrotal widths variety from 9 come 13 cm. Stallions older 보다 7 years of age tend to have better scrotal widths 보다 younger stallions. Certain medications, particularly androgens, adversely impact testicular size. Cryptorchidism is usual in stallions and its genetic manage is not fully understood. The left testicle is the one most frequently retained. Congenital cryptorchid stallions need to not be thought about for breeding.

Internal Reproductive Organs

The ductus deferens is the continuation of the epididymis and runs native the tail the the epididymis through the inguinal canal to the area of the neck the the bladder. The duct broadens near the bladder to form the ampulla i beg your pardon acts as a sperm storage organ.

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Accessory Sex Glands

The vesicular glands, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands are collectively called the accessory sex glands. Castle all administer a part of the seminal fluid, but are not vital for fertility. These glands are typically rectally palpated. The vesicular glands room usually the most challenging to palpate because before teasing castle are essentially collapsed. However, after ~ vigorous teasing, the motor enlarge as result of the buildup of the gels fraction and are much easier to palpate. This is why it might be much more desirable to palpate after ~ teasing, however on the various other hand, most stallions are more tractable following ejaculation. So, time the rectal examination is largely at the examiner’s discretion.