Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond results from the carry of one electron native a metal atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds are formed in between cations and anions.A cation is formed when a metal ion loses a valence electron if an anion is created when a non-metal gains a valence electron. Lock both attain a more stable digital configuration v this exchange.Ionic solids type crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, with high melting points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic link which disappear in H2O, do the resulting solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of one atom to tempt electrons come itself.cation: A positively fee ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemical bond in i m sorry valence electrons are lost from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a much more stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atoms involved. An ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ions of the contrary charge.

Cations and Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and also an anion. The link is developed when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and also becomes a hopeful ion, or cation. One more atom, commonly a non-metal, is maybe to gain the electron(s) to come to be a an adverse ion, or anion.

One instance of an ionic shortcut is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a salt atom and also a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the sodium atom loses its single valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has just enough room to accept it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and also are attractive to one an additional due come electrostatic forces.


Formation the NaF: one electron is transferred from Na come F. The result Na+ and also F– ions are electrically attractive to each other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, are crystalline solids under typical conditions, and have high melt points. Most of this solids are soluble in H2O and also conduct electricity when dissolved. The ability to conduct electricity in solution is why these substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a great example that this form of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons space shared in between the two atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the larger the distinction in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the greater the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen explains how ionic solids type when cations and also anions room attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure of the bond toughness in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and also the factors that influence it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is identified as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid right into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot be measured empirically, however it have the right to be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main determinants that add to the magnitude of the lattice power are the charge and radius that the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into its surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic hard from gaseous ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is defined as the warmth of development for ions of opposite fee in the gas step to combine into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released when gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come with each other to form a lattice of alternating ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign that the energy is indicative of an exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of together the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous type of its ions (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, shown in purple and green respectively, alternative in the crystal lattice of hard NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).

Lattice energy cannot be identified experimentally as result of the difficulty in isolating gaseous ions. The energy value deserve to be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it can be calculated theoretically with an electrostatic examination of the crystal structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the following model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which relies on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary fee of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristics of the compressibility of the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of free space; and also r0 is the distance to the closestly ion.

This design emphasizes 2 main components that add to the lattice power of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and the radius, or size, that the ions. The effect of those determinants is:

as the charge of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the dimension of the ion increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compounds with smaller sized lattice energies tend to be much more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and anions in one ionic compound can be identified by the lose or gain of valence electrons vital in stimulate to attain stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are merged in one ionic compound is the simplest proportion of entirety integers that deserve to be merged to reach electrical neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written type and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any kind of of the facets of team 18 that the periodic table, which room monatomic and, through very restricted exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, i beg your pardon occurs once an atom or molecule/compound has no surplus or deficit the electrons.empirical formula: The easiest whole-number proportion between facets in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: an ion created of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is formed through the move of one or much more valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal, i m sorry produces a cation and also an anion that space bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and are solids at regular temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride crystal lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is established by the number of electrons required to achieve stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then identified by the necessity that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to incorporate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to obtain an ionic compound, we an initial note the digital configurations of these atoms (valence level in indicated in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to shed its two valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, calls for one extr electron to to fill its external shell. Therefore, because that the resulting link to be neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any kind of ratio the 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will accomplish the two demands above, the formula for ionic compound is generally presented together the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number ratio of atom with positive integers.

Note the the cation always precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the created form, if the cation surname is normally the same as the element, the suffix the single-atom anions is changed to –ide, as in the instance of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that is suffix can vary, yet is generally either –ate or –ite,as in the cases of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, depending on the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– integrate to type LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to kind CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to type FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- incorporate to form Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- combine to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and PO43- incorporate to type (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– integrate to kind KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented together the finish transfer the valence electrons, commonly from a steel to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature that a bond is determined by the family member electronegativities of the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has a partial ionic character to it, as a result of the difference in electronegativity between the two bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of one atom to attract electrons to itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are typically classified through the bonds between constituent atoms. There room multiple type of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the complete loss or get of one or an ext valence electrons from a steel to a nonmetal, leading to cations and anions the are organized together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of one ionic bond between lithium and fluorine to kind LiF.


Example of a polar covalent bond: once a carbon atom creates a bond with fluorine, they share a pair of electrons. However, since fluorine is much more highly electronegative 보다 carbon, it attracts that mutual electron pair closer come itself and also thus create an electric dipole. The lowercase greek delta written over the atoms is offered to show the visibility of partial charges. This link is thought about to have features of both covalent and also ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atoms is more facility than this version illustrates. The bond formed between any type of two atoms is no a purely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have some covalent character since the electron density remains shared in between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a bond is figured out by the distinction in electronegativity in between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the more ionic the nature of the bond. In the traditional presentation, bonds space designated as ionic as soon as the ionic element is greater than the covalent facet of the bond. Bond that autumn in between the two extremes, having both ionic and also covalent character, room classified together polar covalent bonds. Such bonds room thought of together consisting that partially charged hopeful and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character represent points along a continuum, these designations room frequently valuable in understanding and also comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds commonly have greater boiling and also melting points, and also they are also usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.