Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is one alkali metal, being in group 1 that the regular table, due to the fact that it has actually a solitary electron in its outer shell that it easily donates, producing a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation.
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Metallic sodium is used largely for the manufacturing of salt borohydride, salt azide, indigo, and also triphenylphosphine. Employed only in rather dedicated applications, only about 100,000 tonnes that metallic sodium are created annually. Sodium is now developed commercially with the electrolysis the molten salt chloride.
Protons and also Neutrons in Sodium
The complete number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is offered the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atomic mass number: N+Z=A. The difference between the neutron number and the atom number is recognized as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.
For stable elements, over there is commonly a selection of secure isotopes. Isotopes are nuclides that have the same atomic number and are thus the exact same element, yet differ in the variety of neutrons. Mass number of typical isotopes that Sodium are 23.
Main isotopes of Sodium
Its only stable isotope is 23Na. 2 radioactive, cosmogenic isotopes space the byproduct that cosmic ray spallation: 22Na has a half-life the 2.6 years and 24Na, a half-life that 15 hours; all various other isotopes have a half-life of much less than one minute.
Sodium-23 is created of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and also 11 electrons. Acute spirit radiation exposure (e.g., native a atom criticality accident) converts several of the stable 23Na in human blood plasma come 24Na. By measure the concentration of this isotope, the ghost radiation dosage to the victim have the right to be computed.
Sodium-22 is composed of 11 protons, 11 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Odium-22 is a radioactive isotope of sodium, undergoing positron emissions to 22Ne v a half-life of 2.605 years. It is also commonly used as a positron resource in positron annihilation spectroscopy.
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Sodium-24 is composed of 11 protons, 12 neutrons, and 11 electrons. Sodium-24 is among the most necessary isotopes. The is radioactive and also created from common sodium-23 by ghost bombardment. Because of this its activity accounts for many of the reactor coolants activity when reactor is at complete power.