You are watching: Which group on the periodic table has two elements that exist as gases at stp?

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(a) heavy O2 has a fixed volume and also shape, and the molecules are packed strict together. (b) liquid O2 conforms come the form of that container yet has a addressed volume; the contains reasonably densely pack molecules. (c) gaseous O2 filling its container completely—regardless of the container’s dimension or shape—and is composed of commonly separated molecules.


The state of a provided substance depends strongly top top conditions. Because that example, H2O is typically found in all three states: hard ice, liquid water, and water vapor (its gas form). Under most conditions, we encounter water as the liquid the is vital for life; us drink it, cook with it, and also bathe in it. As soon as the temperature is cold sufficient to change the liquid to ice, we can ski or skate on it, load it right into a snowball or eye cone, and also even construct dwellings with it. Water vaporThe distinction between a gas and a vapor is subtle: the hatchet vapor refers to the gaseous form of a substance that is a liquid or a hard under normal conditions (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) are therefore referred to together gases, yet gaseous water in the atmosphere is referred to as water vapor. Is a ingredient of the air us breathe, and also it is produced whenever we heat water for food preparation food or make coffee or tea. Water vapor in ~ temperatures greater than 100°C is called steam. Vapor is supplied to drive huge machinery, including turbines that create electricity. The properties of the three claims of water are summarized in Table 10.1.1


Table 10.1.1 nature of Water in ~ 1.0 atm

Temperature State density (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and also the physical and stclairdrake.netical nature of atoms, ions, and also molecules usually execute not rely on your physical state; the separation, personal, instance water molecules in ice, liquid water, and also steam, because that example, space all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic nature of a substance count strongly ~ above its physical state, which is identified by intermolecular forces and conditions such as temperature and pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 reflects the areas in the routine table that those facets that are typically found in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states. Other than for hydrogen, the aspects that take place naturally as gases are on the ideal side that the routine table. Of these, all the noble gases (group 18) room monatomic gases, whereas the various other gaseous facets are diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2, F2, and also Cl2). Oxygen have the right to also kind a second allotrope, the very reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), i beg your pardon is also a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) are liquids under normal conditions (25°C and also 1.0 atm, frequently referred to together “room temperature and pressure”). Gallium (Ga), i beg your pardon melts at only 29.76°C, have the right to be converted to a liquid just by hold a container of it in her hand or keeping it in a non-air-conditioned room on a warm summer day. The remainder of the elements are all solids under common conditions.


Figure 10.1.2 aspects That occur Naturally as Gases, Liquids, and Solids in ~ 25°C and also 1 atm

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