According come the Centers for disease Control and also Prevention (CDC), an approximated 48 million civilization get sick from foodborne-related conditions each year, with 128,000 of lock needinghospitalization. Maintaining food in ~ a appropriate temperature is one of the most important things a food handler can do to protect against bacteria that reason foodborne disease from growing rapidly. Leaving certain foods the end for a lengthy time in specific temperatures creates conditions for bacteria to grow, sometimes to dangerous levels. Limiting just how long foodstuffs spend in growth-promoting temperature minimizes the hazard of someone getting sick. This unit will cover which foods items are most at threat for harboring pathogens, exactly how to control time and also temperature to minimization bacterial overgrowth, and the proper method to take the temperature of foods items throughout the food preparation process.

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Objectives:
Define TCS food and name two examples of TCS foods.Describe the temperature “danger zone” and how exposure time can produce an optimal atmosphere for bacteria come grow.Identify 4 instances when controlling time and temperature is an important in the food ready process.List three ways to effectively thaw frozen foods.Demonstrate the proper way to take temperatures the various types of food.

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TCS Food

All food can potentially carry harmful bacteria, but some foods are especially conducive to fostering bacterial growth. Numerous factors affect the price at which bacteria flourish in food, but time and also temperature are two of the most easily-controlled components in a food business kitchen. Food that requires time and temperature control for security is described as TCS food. TCS food has actually several characteristics that make it best for bacter growth, such together moisture, protein, and a neutral or slightly acidic pH.

TCS food deserve to be whole food, or it have the right to be food that has currently been prepared, favor a casserole. TCS food can be from pet or plant sources. Foods items that are taken into consideration TCS include:

Milk and also other dairy productsMeat (beef, pork, lamb) or poultry (chicken, turkey)Fish and shellfishEggsBaked potatoesPlant-based foodstuffs that have actually been heat-treated (cooked rice, beans, or vegetables)Soy foods (tofu, textured soy protein/meat alternatives)Sliced or reduced fruits or vegetables (e.g. Cantaloupe or melons, irpari greens, tomatoes, etc.)Bean sprouts and sprout seedsUntreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
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Print out the mini-poster listed below illustrating TCS foods and hang it in your kitchen facility, if room permits, or save the details in a resource Binder or similiar place within her facility.

Factors that impact Bacterial Growth

There are six factors that affect bacterial growth on food. These room food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, and also moisture. Just how acidic a food is, together measured by pH, can likewise influence how easily bacteria have the right to grow. Bacteria tend to grow in foods with a pH in between 4.6 and also 9.0. Short pH foods—those the are much more acidic—include things favor pickled foods, jams or jellies, honey, and fruits. High pH foods—those that do not have much acidity—include meats, milk, and also vegetables. Many bacteria that reason foodborne condition grow fine in conditions that perform not have actually much oxygen, i m sorry is why the is important to manage other determinants that encourage bacterial expansion in food. Bacteria require moisture come grow, and also the amount of humidity in a food is measured by water activity. The higher the humidity in a food, the far better the problems for bacter growth. The water task scale varieties from 0 come 1.0, with distilled water gift 1.0. Most foodstuffs have a water activity of at the very least 0.95, definition that bacteria have adequate moisture to grow.

A food handler cannot control a food’s acidity, oxygen, or moisture; this properties are natural to the food itself. However, in food service, the staying two factors, time and also temperature, can be controlled. Time and also temperature are closely related. Bacterial development in ideal conditions happen rapidly: the amount of bacteria can twin every 15 come 20 minutes. This is particularly true as soon as the temperature that food drops in the temperature hazard zone. The temperature peril zone varieties from 41 F to 135 F (5 C come 74 C). The longer a food stays in this temperature range, the higher the threat for bacteria to grow rapidly in a TCS food. The is recommended to limit the size of time a TCS food is in the temperature risk zone to no more than 4 hours.

Controlling Time & Temperature native Receiving through Preparation

Receiving Food

It is essential to make certain you inspect the temperature the TCS food throughout the receiving process. This will assist you gauge even if it is food was exposed to the temperature danger zone during transit. Record each food’s temperature ~ above a designated temperature log. Refrigerated TCS foods items should arrive at 41 F (5 C) or colder. Frozen TCS food must arrive in ~ 0 F (-18 C) or colder. Warm TCS food should be got at 135 F (57 C) or higher; as with cold or frozen TCS food, be certain to document the temperature of hot TCS food top top receipt utilizing a designated temperature log. Frozen TCS food with ice crystals or frozen liquid, fluids, or water stains need to not it is in accepted. Additionally, any food that has actually passed that use-by or expiration date, has actually an turn off odor, abnormal color, or mold, or any type of meat, fish or poultry that is slimy, sticky, or dry have to be rejected.

Storing Food

Maintaining proper temperature during storage the TCS food is an extremely important. Temperatures have to be checked and also recorded regularly. Food warehouse time have to be documented. This is achieved through composing down the day a food was put right into storage and when it should be used directly on the food itself. Labels room a great way to carry out this. Below are some security tips because that safely save on computer TCS food:

Refrigerated TCS food need to be stored in ~ 41 F (5 C) or cooler so the the internal temperature the the food maintains this temperature.Keep frozen food frozen; carry out not enable it to thaw.Do not overcrowd freezers or refrigerators; this can cause the temperature within the equipment to end up being warmer and also expose the food to dangerous temperatures.Minimize how frequently you need to open refrigerator and also freezer doors.Label TCS food when it goes right into storage. The label should encompass the surname of the food, the date it went into storage, and also the day it need to be provided by. Ready-to-eat TCS food prepared on-site in your facility need to be offered within seven days if held at 41 F (5 C) or lower.Be sure to rotate food throughout storage so the the food with the faster use-by day is in former of foods with later on dates. (As questioned in lesson Four, this is called FIFO rotation, or first in, very first out.)

The appropriate temperatures because that kitchen devices are as follows:

Refrigerators:40F (4 C) or colderFreezers:0 F (-18 C) or colderDry storage:50 F to 70 F (10 C come 21 C), with relative humidity the 50 to 60 percent

Record the temperature of her facility’s walk-in refrigerators and freezers on an approvedtemperature log. Her program may use a particular form, or you can use the temperature logtemplate below.

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Thawing Food

There are 4 ways to effectively thaw frozen food. Which method you use depends on the kind of food friend thaw. The is important to thaw food properly to minimize exactly how much time the food is in the temperature peril zone come inhibit bacterial growth.