You are watching: Why do elements in groups have similar properties
The repeating succession of physical and chemical properties amongst the elements, once they were listed in order of raising atomic mass, was what brought about the development of the routine Table the the Elements. Today"s periodic Table is arranged in bespeak of increasing number of protons in the nuclei of...
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The repeating succession of physical and chemical properties among the elements, when they were noted in bespeak of boosting atomic mass, to be what brought about the production of the periodic Table that the Elements. Today"s regular Table is i ordered it in order of increasing variety of protons in the nuclei that the atom of the elements, through the aspects aligned so that those with comparable properties are in the exact same column, or group. That is in reality the electrons, no the protons, that give rise to the properties that repeat from period to period, but because a neutral atom has the same variety of electrons together protons, listing the elements by atom number works just fine.
We now recognize that electrons space arranged about the atom nucleus in a structured arrangement, and it is the outermost electrons, dubbed the valence electrons, that are mostly responsible for connecting with other atoms, and also thus are responsible for both physical and also chemical properties. Being very small, electrons have far-reaching wave nature, therefore their actions cannot it is in adequately represented by timeless physics, but can be defined by quantum mechanics. The derivation is complex but claims that electrons around a nucleus can exist just in certain states figured out by their quantum number n, l, and also m. This states have actually probability distributions in room that we visualize together shapes, referred to as orbitals. At most two electron with different values of a 4th quantum number, s, have the right to "occupy" the exact same shape, or orbital.
The rules because that quantum states and the quantum numbers cause each principal energy level to have one spherical s orbital and also three dumbbell-shaped p orbitals. Since two electrons deserve to occupy every orbital, these can hold as much as eight electrons. It turns out the atoms are many stable when the s and also p orbitals in the exact same level are either all full or all empty. If some, but not all, have one or 2 electrons, the atom is unstable and will react with various other atoms, gaining, losing, or sharing electrons to acquire to the all-or-nothing arrangement.
The periodic Table is arranged so the members of the same team have the same variety of electrons in their outermost layer, referred to as valence electrons. Thus every one of the team 1 elements have one electron in one s orbital. V the exemption of hydrogen, they all shed that electron readily. Climate that whole level is empty, and the level listed below it is fully filled. The propensity to lose their solitary valence electron offers the team 1 elements their similar properties. Every one of the group 18 facets have the s and also p orbitals in their valence level every filled with two electron each, eight total, for this reason they space stable and also tend not to react through anything. Every one of the team 17 aspects are one short of having totally filled valence s and p orbitals, so your interactions space all governed by the tendency to get one electron.
All of chemistry is administer by the instability of atom that have partially-filled "valence shells," the name given to the s and p orbitals in the outermost layer. Escape how many electrons an atom has, that will often tend to different mechanisms come either finish or empty the set. Atoms having the same number will often tend to react the exact same way, and since elements having the exact same number room arranged in groups, teams tend to have the same properties.
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This description applies most clearly to the "main-group" or A elements. The B facets or change metals (Groups 3-12) have one or 2 valence electrons and also a varying variety of inner electron in "inner" d and f orbitals. The nature of change metals are comparable to one one more (because that their similar arrangement of valence electrons) and are usually not had in discussions of regular properties.